PRAGMATIC POLITENESS AND INTERACTION


PRAGMATIC POLITENESS AND INTERACTION

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

 

A.    Background of Study

As human being we need to do the interaction with other people. Every interaction will has different sense  depend on the person who do it.  As a human we also are able to separate fromthe socialinteraction. Especially when we talk about linguistic interaction. We will know if there are many factors that talk about it. To get the sense of interaction we should look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness. Every interaction that people do usually got the impact from their  culture and behavior.  So when we do the interaction with them. We will think how to show our politeness to our listener/ partner. To show it we usually adapted from their culture and behavior. Pragmatic is the one of the study that talk about it especially in the politeness and interaction.

People are not born polite but acquire it from learning. When we are communicating with each other consciously or unconsciously, cultural backgrounds affect our behaviors and reactions. People live in a certain cultural environment, and his/her behaviors are featured by his/her cultures. In order to avoid cultural misunderstandings which will lead to communication failure, people should abide by a certain courtesy criteria. The American philosopher and logician, Paul Grice pointed out that in conversation, the participants must first of all be willing to cooperate; otherwise, it would not be possible for them to carry on the talk. In another hand, I will talk it more in this paper because when we learn to get sense of interaction we will examine about Politeness and Interaction too. 

B.     Problem of Study

Based on the above background, the problem in this study can be formulated as follows.

1.      What is the definition of Politeness and Interaction?

2.      What is the Politeness Principle?

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

A.    Definition of Politeness and interaction

Politeness theory is the theory that accounts for the redressing of the affronts to face posed by face-threatening acts to addressees. First formulated in 1978 by Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson, politeness theory has since expanded academia’s perception of politeness. Politeness is the expression of the speakers’ intention to mitigate face threats carried by certain face threatening acts toward another (Mills, 2003, p. 6). Another definition is “a battery of social skills whose goal is to ensure everyone feels affirmed in a social interaction”. Being polite therefore consists of attempting to save face for another.

According to dictionary.com, politeness is defined as “showing good manners towards others” or as being “refined or cultured” (2011); however, in the field of linguistics the concept of politeness is much more complex. This website outlines some of the theorists who have made major contributions to the development of politeness theory and its role in discourse. We found that Lakoff, Leech and Brown and Levinson were some of the earliest linguists to study politeness. Since then, many other theorists have either built on their ideas and principles or tried to disprove them. Fraser and Nolen and Scollon and Scollon propose a more social interactional perspective on politeness. Eelen and Watts, on the other hand, differ from previous theorists by dividing politeness into two separate definitions and by stressing the differences within politeness due to culture.

According to Brown and Levinson (1987) everyone has self-public image which has relation to emotional and social sense of self and expects everyone else to recognize.Politeness refers to the common notion of the term, that is, the way politeness manifests itself in communicative interaction.  Politeness is one of the constraints of human interaction, whose purpose is to consider other`s feelings, establish levels of mutual comfort, and promote rapport. Hill et al. (1986: 282). Politeness is what we think is appropriate behaviour in particular situations in an attempt to achieve and maintain successful social relationships with others  (Lakoff 1972: 910).

 According to To Watts (2003:39) politeness can be identified as follows:

1.      Politeness is the natural attribute of a ‘good’ character.

2.      Politeness is the ability to please others through one’s external actions .

3.      Politeness is the ideal union between the character of an individual and his external actions .

 Leech defines politeness as a type of behaviour that allows the participants to engage in a social interaction in an atmosphere of relative harmony. In stating his maxims Leech uses his own terms for two kinds of illocutionary acts. He calls representatives “assertives”, and calls directives “impositives”. According to Yule politeness is the awareness of another person face. The word “face” in this case refers to the public self-inage of a person. The examples of politness:

 

·         A student to teacher

Student    : Excuse me Mr. Buckingham, but can I talk to you for a minute?

·         Friend to friend

Hey Bucky, got a minute?

politeness = the means empoyed to show awareness of another person’s face,

showing awareness for a socially distant person’s face          respect, deference showing awareness for a socially close person’s face                   friendliness, solidarity

 

B.     The Approches of Politeness

1.      Leech’s (1983) Maxims of Politeness

a.       Tact maxim

The tact maxim is minimizing cost to other and maximizing benefit to other. This maxim is applied in Searle’s speech act, commissives and directives called by Leech as impositives. Commissives is found in utterances that express speaker’s intention in the future action. Then, Directives/ impositives are expressions that influence the hearer to do action. The example of the tact maxim is as follows:

“Won‘t you sit down?”

“Could I interrupt you for half a second – what was the website address?”

 

It is the directive/ impositive utterance. This utterance is spoken to ask the hearer sitting down. The speaker uses indirect utterance to be more polite and minimizing cost to the hearer. This utterance implies that sitting down is benefit to the hearer.

The tact maxim states: ‘Minimize the expression of beliefs which imply cost to other; maximize the expression of beliefs which imply benefit to other.’ The first part of this maxim fits in with Brown and Levinson‘s negative politeness strategy of minimising the imposition, and the second part reflects the positive politeness strategy of attending to the hearer’s interests, wants, and needs:

Could I interrupt you for a second?

If I could just clarify this then.

 

b.      Generosity maxim

The generosity maxim states to minimizing benefit to self and maximizing cost to self. Like tact maxim, the generosity maxim occurs in commissives and directives/ impositives. Unlike the tact maxim, the maxim of generosity focuses on the speaker, and says that others should be put first instead of the self. This maxim is centered to self, while the tact maxim is to other. The example will be illustrated as follows:

 

You relax and let me do the dishes.

You must come and have dinner with us.

maximize cost/minimize benefit to yourself

Could I copy the web address?

 

It is an advice utterance that is involved in directive illocutionary act. In this case the speaker implies that cost of the utterance is to his self. Meanwhile, the utterance implies that benefit is for the hearer.

 

c.       Approbation maxim

The approbation maxim requires to minimizing dispraise of other and maximizing praise of other. This maxim instructs to avoid saying unpleasant things about others and especially about the hearer. This maxim occurs in assertives/ representatives and expressives. Assertives/ representatives are utterances that express the true propositional. Meanwhile, expressive are utterances that show the speaker feeling. The example is sampled below.

 

A: “The performance was great!”

B: “Yes, wasn’t it!”

minimize dispraise/maximize praise of the other person

Mary you’re always so efficient – do you have copy of that web address?

 

The Approbation maxim states: ‘Minimize the expression of beliefs which express dispraise of other; maximize the expression of beliefs which express approval of other.’ It is preferred to praise others and if this is impossible, to sidestep the issue, to give some sort of minimal response (possibly through the use of euphemisms), or to remain silent. The first part of the maxim avoids disagreement; the second part intends to make other people feel good by showing solidarity.

 

-I heard you singing at the karaoke last night. It sounded like you were enjoying yourself!

-Gideon, I know you’re a genius – would you know how to solve this math problem here?

 

In the example, A gives a good comment about the performance. He talks the pleasant thing about other. This expression is a congratulation utterance that maximizes praise of other. Thus this utterance is included the approbation maxim.

 

d.      Modesty maxim

In the modesty maxim, the participants must minimize praise of self and maximize dispraise of self. This maxim is applied in assertives/ representatives and expressives like the approbation maxim. Both the approbation maxim and the modesty maxim concern to the degree of good or bad evaluation of other or self that is uttered by the speaker. The approbation maxim is exampled by courtesy of congratulation. On other hand, the modesty maxim usually occurs in apologies. The sample of the modesty maxim is below.

 

1. “Please accept this small gift as prize of your achievement.”

2. “Oh, I’m so stupid – I didn’t make a note of our lecture! Did you?”

maximize dispraise/minimize praise of yourself

Oh I’m so stupid – I didn’t make a not of that web address. Did you?

 

In this case, the utterance above is categorized as the modesty maxim because the speaker maximizes dispraise of himself. The speaker notices his utterance by using  “small gift”.

 

e.       Agreement maxim

In the agreement maxim, there is tendency to maximize agreement between self and other people and minimize disagreement between self and other. The disagreement, in this maxim, usually is expressed by regret or partial agreement.It is in line with Brown and Levinson‘s positive politeness strategies of ‘seek agreement’ and ‘avoid disagreement,’ to which they attach great importance. However, it is not being claimed that people totally avoid disagreement. It is simply observed that they are much more direct in expressing agreement, rather than disagreement.  This maxim occurs in assertives/ representatives illocutionary act. There example will be illustrated below.

 

A: “English is a difficult language to learn.”

B: “True, but the grammar is quite easy.”

 

A: I don’t want my daughter to do this, I want her to do that.

B: Yes, but ma’am, I thought we resolved this already on your last visit.

minimize disagreement/maximize agreement between self and other

Yes, of course you’re right, but your decision might make her very unhappy

 

From the example, B actually does not agree that all part of English language difficult to learn. He does not express his disagreement strongly to be more polite. The polite answer will influence the effect of the hearer. In this case, B’s answer minimize his disagreement using partial agreement, “true, but…”.

 

f.       Sympathy maxim

The sympathy maxim explains to minimize antipathy between self and other and maximize sympathy between self and other. In this case, the achievement being reached by other must be congratulated. On other hand, the calamity happens to other, must be given sympathy or condolences. This maxim is applicable in assertives/ representatives. The example is as follows. This includes a small group of speech acts such as congratulation, commiseration, and expressing condolences – all of which is in accordance with Brown and Levinson’s positive politeness strategy of attending to the hearer’s interests, wants, and needs.

1.      “I’m terribly sorry to hear about your father.”

2.       I am sorry to hear about your father.

 

minimize antipathy/maximize sympathy between self and other

I was very sorry to hear about your father’s death

It is a condolence expression which is expressed the sympathy for misfortune. This utterance is uttered when the hearer gets calamity of father’s died or sick. This expression shows the solidarity between the speaker and the hearer.

Politeness Principle: Table

A description of the six maxims of the politeness principle as they are formulated by Leech, [1]are indicated below.

Maxim

Where Found

Description

1. The tact maxim

In impositives and commisives

The speaker[2] minimizes the cost (and correspondingly maximizes the benefit) to the listener .

2. The generosity maxim

In impositives and commissives.

The speaker minimizes the benefit (and correspondingly maximizes the cost) to herself.

3. The approbation maxim

In expressives and assertives.

The speaker minimizes dispraise (and correspondingly maximizes praise) of the listener.

4. The modesty maxim.

In expressives and assertives.

The speaker minimizes praise (and correspondingly maximizes dispraise) of herself.

5. The agreement maxim.

In assertives.

The speaker minimizes disagreement (and correspondingly maximizes agreement) between herself and the listener.

6. The sympathy maxim.

In assertives.

The speaker minimizes antipathy (and correspondingly maximizes sympathy) between herself and the listener.

Leech’s theory of politeness also establishes five scales, which are used for determining how the maxims should be used and balanced.

1.      The Cost Benefit Scale: weighs the costs and benefits that an act will have on the speaker and the audience.

2.      Optionality Scale: weighs how much choice the goals of the speaker allow the audience.

3.      Indirectness Scale: weighs how hard the audience must work to understand the speaker.

4.      Authority Scale: weighs the right for the speaker to impose their ideas onto the audience.

5.      Social Distance Scale: weighs the degree of familiarity between the speaker and audience (Fraser, 1990).

According to Leech, different situations call for different degrees of politeness. He outlines four main situations, which call for politeness.

1.      Competitive: the speech goal competes with the social goal. In this situation politeness is viewed as being negative. For example, giving an order.

2.      Convivial: the speech goal matches the social goal. In this situation politeness is viewed as being positive. For example, thanking someone.

3.      Collaborative: the speech goal is indifferent the social goal. For example, making an announcement.

4.      Conflictive: the speech goal conflicts with the social goal. For example, making an accusation (Fraser, 1990).

 

2.      Brown and Levinson’s Politeness Theory

Perhaps the most thorough treatment of the concept of politeness is that of Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson, which was first published in 1978 and then reissued, with a long introduction, in 1987. In their model, politeness is defined as redressive action taken to counter-balance the disruptive effect of face-threatening acts (FTAs).FTAs usually speaker says something that represents a threat to another individual’s.

Brown and Levinson developed a theory of politeness that drew on Goffman’s idea of face and expanded upon Lakoff’s rules of politeness. According to Brown and Levinson there are two kinds of face, which reflect two different desires present in every interaction (Johnstone, 2008).

a.      Negative Face (desire to express one’s ideas without resistance)

Negative face the need to be independent, to have freedom of action, and not to be imposed on by others. Negative face need to be independentand free.negative face refers to the want of every competent adult member that his actions be unimpeded by others For the example:

 

I’m sorry to bother you.

Appeal to positive face.

I know you’re busy.

 

b.      Positive Face (desire to have one’s contributions approved of)

Positive face is the need to be accepted, even liked, by others, to be treated as a member of the same group, and to know that his or her wants are shared by others. Positive face need to be connected and a member of the group. For theb examples:

·         Let’s do it together.

·         You and I have the same problems.

·         Your friend asks for a ride to the airport.

·         Positive face needs:  You think, I better take him because I want him to like me, and I want the reputation of being a reliable person (Goffman: 1967).In conclusion, we can say that negative face is the need to be independent and positive face is the need to be connected.

Brown and Levinson theorize that face must be continually monitored during a conversation because it is vulnerable. During a conversation face can be lost, maintained or enhanced. It is important to not only maintain one’s own face but also the face of others (Fraser, 1990). Interlocutors must be able to “save face” when they are confronted with a “face-threatening act” (FTA), which threatens the faces of the addressees (Johnstone, 2008). Fraser (1990) outlines the four potential face-threatening acts, proposed by Brown and Levinson, as follows.

1.      Acts which threaten the audience’s negative face: ordering, advising, threatening, warning

2.      Acts which threaten the audience’s positive face: complaining, criticizing, disagreeing, raising taboo topics

3.      Acts which threaten speaker’s negative face: accepting an offer, accepting thanks, promising unwillingly

4.      Acts which threaten speaker’s positive face: apologizing, accepting compliments and confessing

Brown and Levinson then propose possible strategies that interlocutors can use to deal with face threatening acts. “Politeness Theory” (2011) outlines them as follows.

1.      Bald On-record politeness: This strategy is used in situations where people know each other well or in a situation of urgency. In these instances maintaining face is not the first priority or main goal of a conversation. A person may shout, “watch out” if they see someone is in danger or a mother may tell her son to “eat your peas” at supper. This strategy does not try to preserve face, but can be used to threaten it if taken out of context. E.g:

Emergency: Help!

Task oriented: Give me those!

Request: Put your jacket away.

Alerting: Turn your lights on! (while driving)

Brown and Levinson outline various cases in which one might use the bald on-record strategy, including:[3]

·         Instances in which threat minimizing does not occur

·         Great urgency or desperation

Watch out!

·         Speaking as if great efficiency is necessary

Hear me out:…

·         Task-oriented

Pass me the hammer.

·         Little or no desire to maintain someone’s face

Don’t forget to clean the blinds!

·         Doing the face-threatening act is in the interest of the hearer

Your headlights are on!

·         Instances in which the threat is minimized implicitly

·         Welcomes

Come in.

·         Offers

Leave it, I’ll clean up later.

Eat!

2.      Off-record: This strategy is more indirect. The speaker does not impose on the hearer. As a result, face is not directly threatened. This strategy often requires the hearer to interpret what the speaker is saying. Off-record indirect strategies take some of the pressure off. You are trying to avoid the direct FTA of asking for a beer. You would rather it be offered to you once your hearer sees that you want one. e.g  (I’t so hot, it makes you really thirsty)

Example of the off-record (indirect)

Give hints: It’s a bit cold in here.

Be vague: Perhaps someone should open the window. Be sarcastic, or joking: Yeah, it’s really hot here.

For example, a speaker using the indirect strategy might merely say “wow, it’s getting cold in here” insinuating that it would be nice if the listener would get up and turn up the thermostat without directly asking the listener to do so

3.      Positive Politeness: This strategy tries to minimize the threat to the audience’s positive face. This can be done by attending to the audience’s needs, invoking equality and feelings of belonging to the group, hedging or indirectness, avoiding disagreement, using humor and optimism and making offers and promises. The positive politeness strategy shows you recognize that your hearer has a face to be respected. It also confirms that the relationship is friendly and expresses group reciprocity. E.g (Is it ok for me to have a beer?)

The examples of Positive Politeness

Attend to the hearer: You must be hungry, it’s a long time since breakfast. How about some lunch?

Avoid disagreement: A: What is she, small? B: Yes, yes, she’s small, smallish, um, not really small but certainly not very big.

Assume agreement: So when are you coming to see us?

Hedge opinion: You really should sort of try harder.

Examples from Brown and Levinson:[4]

  • Attend to H’s interests, needs, wants

You look sad. Can I do anything?

  • Use solidarity in-group identity markers

Heh, mate, can you lend me a dollar?

  • Be optimistic

I’ll just come along, if you don’t mind.

  • Include both speaker (S) and hearer (H) in activity

If we help each other, I guess, we’ll both sink or swim in this course.

  • Offer or promise

If you wash the dishes, I’ll vacuum the floor.

  • Exaggerate interest in H and his interests

That’s a nice haircut you got; where did you get it?

  • Avoid Disagreement

Yes, it’s rather long; not short certainly.

  • Joke

Wow, that’s a whopper!

 

4.      Negative Politeness: This strategy tries to minimize threats to the audience’s negative face. An example of when negative politeness would be used is when the speaker requires something from the audience, but wants to maintain the audience’s right to refuse. This can be done by being indirect, using hedges or questions, minimizing imposition and apologizing. The negative politeness strategy recognizes the hearer’s face. but it also admits that you are in some way imposing on him/her. E.g (I don’t want to bother you but, would it be possible for me to have a beer?). Examples from Brown and Levinson include:[5]

  • Be indirect

Would you know where Oxford Street is?

  • Use hedges or questions

Perhaps, he might have taken it, maybe.

Could you please pass the rice?

  • Be pessimistic

You couldn’t find your way to lending me a thousand dollars, could you?

So I suppose some help is out of the question, then?

  • Minimize the imposition

It’s not too much out of your way, just a couple of blocks.

  • Use obviating structures, like nominalizations, passives, or statements of general rules

I hope offense will not be taken.

Visitors sign the ledger.

Spitting will not be tolerated.

  • Apologize

I’m sorry; it’s a lot to ask, but can you lend me a thousand dollars?

  • Use plural pronouns

We regret to inform you.

An example that is given by McCarthy and Carter [6] is the following dialogue from the Australian television soap opera, “Neighbours“:

Clarrie   : So I said to him, forget your books for one night, throw a party next  weekend.

Helen     : A party at number 30! What will Dorothy say about that?

Clarrie   : Well, what she doesn’t know won’t hurt her. Of course, I’ll be keeping my eye on things, and (SIGNAL OF OPENING) that brings me to my next problem. (EXPLAIN PROBLEM) You see, these young people, they don’t want an old codger like me poking my nose in, so I’ll make myself scarce, but I still need to be closer to hand, you see. So, (ASK FAVOR) I was wondering, would it be all right if I came over here on the night? What d’you reckon?

Helen   : Oh, Clarrie, I…

Clarrie : Oh (MINIMIZATION) I’d be no bother. (REINFORCE EXPLANATION) It’d mean a heck of a lot to those kids.

Helen   : All right.

Clarrie: (THANK WITH BOOST) I knew you’d say yes. You’re an angel, Helen.

Helen   : Ha! (laughs)

 Negative politeness can take the form of:

·         Hedging: Er, could you, er, perhaps, close the, um , window?

·         Pessimism: I don’t suppose you could close the window, could you?

·         Apologizing: I’m terribly sorry to disturb you, but could you close the window?

·         Indicating deference: Excuse me, sir, would you mind if I asked you to close the window?

·         Impersonalizing: The management requires all windows to be closed.

The example of Negative Politeness

Be indirect: I’m looking for a pen.

Request forgiveness: You must forgive me but…. Could I borrow your pen?

Minimize imposition: I just wanted to ask you if I could use your pe.

Pluralize the person responsible: We forgot to tell you that you needed to buy your plane ticket by yesterday.

Although Brown and Levinson acknowledge that what constitutes positive and negative face differs across cultures, they would agree with Lakoff that the concept of face is universal (Johnstone, 2008).

The use of positive politeness forms               solidarity strategy

(used more by groups than individuals)

includes personal information, nicknames, even abusive terms (esp. among males), shared dialect/slang expressions, inclusive terms (‘we’, ‘let’s’ etc.)

Come on, let’s go to the party. Everyone will be there. We’ll have fun.

 

The use of negative politeness forms              deference strategy

formal politeness, more impersonal, can include expressions that refer to neither the

speaker nor the hearer, emphasizing hearer’s and speaker’s independence, no personal claims

There’s going to be a party, if you can make it. It will be fun.

To avoid risk for the another person (i.e. face threatening) can be achieved by providing an

opportunity for the other person to halt the potentially risky act rather than simply making a request, speakers will produce a pre-request

A: Are you busy? (= pre-request)

B: Not really (= go ahead)

A: Check over this memo (= request)

B: Okay (= accept)

 

advantage that hearer can decide to stop the pre-request or go ahead

A: Are you busy? (= pre-request)

B: Oh, sorry. (= stop)

 

This response allows the speaker to avoid making a request that cannot be granted

However, it is also possible to treat pre-requests as as requests and respond to them.

A: Do you have a spare pen?

B: Here (hands over the pen)

A: Do you mind if I use you phone?

B: Yeah, sure.

Not to be interpreted literally as an answer to the pre-request, but to the unstated request.

Other uses of pre-sequences

pre-invitations:

A: What are you doing this Friday? (= pre-invitation)

B: Hmm, nothing so far. (= go ahead)

A: Come over for dinner. (= invitation)

B: Ahm I’d like that. (= accept)

A: Are you doing anything later? (= pre-invitation)

B: Oh yeah. Busy, busy, busy. (= stop)

A: Oh, okay (= stop)

 

 

pre-announcements(often by children):

A: Mom, guess what happened? (= pre-announcement)

B: (Silence)

A: Mom, you know what? (= pre-annoucement)

B: Not right now, sweetie. I’m busy. (= stop)

(No ‘go ahead’, silence should be interpreted as ‘stop‘)

Identify the given pre-sequences

1.       A: Hey, I was just ringing up to ask if you were going to Jim’s party

B: Yes I thought you might

A: Heh heh pre-request

B: Yey, do you need a ride?

A: Yeah thanks

2.       A: Do you have hot chocolate?

B: mmhmm pre-request

A: Can I have hot chocolate with whipped cream?

B: Sure

3.       A: What’cha doin’?

B: Nothin’ pre-invitation

A: Wanna drink?

4.       A: I forgot to tell you the two best things that happened to me today.

B: Oh cool – what were thy? pre-announcement

A: I got a B+ on my math test … and Jenny invited me to her party

 

3.      Robin Lakoff Theory

Lakoff was one of the first linguists to study politeness and gave birth to the notion that politeness is an important aspect of interaction that needs to be studied. Many theorists following Lakoff have focused on either expanding on his maxims or contesting them. Lakoff’s theory of politeness suggests that people follow a certain set of rules when they interact with each other, which prevent interaction from breaking down (Johnstone, 2008). Lakoff proposes that there are two rules of politeness, which aim at minimizing conflict in an interaction. As outlined in “Politeness Theory” (2011), Lakoff’s rules are as follows.

1.      Be clear (based on Grice’s Cooperative Principle Maxims)

1.      Maxim of Quantity

                                                        i.            Sub maxim: state as much information as is needed in the conversation but not more.

2.      Maxim of Quality

                                                        i.            Only say what you believe to be true based on your own knowledge and evidence.

3.      Maxim of Relations (be relevant)

4.      Maxims of Manner

                                                        i.            Be concise, avoid confusing, ambiguous statements

2.      Be polite

1.      Don’t impose

2.      Give options

3.      Make others feel good

These subsets of “Be Polite” have also been referred to as the maxim of formality or distance, the maxim of hesitancy or deference and the maxim of equality or camaraderie (Johnstone, 2008). Lakoff suggests that interlocutors must try to find a balance between these three maxims because they cannot all be maximized at the same time. When the balance of these three maxims is thrown off people perceive behavior or speech to be inappropriate or impolite (2008). Lakoff’s theory of politeness considers politeness to be universal (Terkourafi, n.d.). This is an idea that will be contested and debated by later theorists.


[1] In his Principles of Pragmatics (London: Longman, 1983): see especially chapters 5 and 6

[2] Again, following the practice above, the speaker is treated as female, and the listener as male.

[3] Brown, Penelope and Stephen C. Levinson. 1987. Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-31355-1

[4] Brown, Penelope and Stephen C. Levinson. 1987. Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-31355-1

[5] Brown, Penelope and Stephen C. Levinson. 1987. Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-31355-1

[6] Carter, Ronald and McCarthy, Michael. 1994. Language as Discourse- Perspectives for Language Teaching. Longman Publishing, New York. ISBN 10 0-582-084245

Interpretation of song “who says”


“Who Says”

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BzE1mX4Px0I

I wouldn’t wanna be anybody else
Aku tak ingin jadi orang lain
hey

You made me insecure
Kau membuatku rendah diri
Told me I wasn’t good enough
Kau bilang aku tak cukup baik
But who are you to judge
Tapi apa hakmu menilaiku?
When you’re a diamond in the rough
Saat dirimu bak permata yang belum diasah
I’m sure you got some things
Aku yakin kau punya sesuatu
You’d like to change about yourself
Kau ingin mengubah dirimu
But when it comes to me
Tapi jika aku
I wouldn’t want to be anybody else
Aku tak ingin jadi orang lain

PRE-CHORUS
Na na na
Na na na
I’m no beauty queen
Aku memang bukan ratu kecantikan
I’m just beautiful me
Aku cantik sebagai diriku sendiri
Na na na
Na na na
You’ve got every right
Kau punya hak
To a beautiful life
Tuk rasakan hidup yang indah
C’mon
Ayolah

CHORUS
Who says
Kata siapa
Who says you’re not perfect
Kata siapa kau tak sempurna
Who says you’re not worth it
Kata siapa kau tak layak menerimanya
Who says you’re the only one that’s hurting
Kata siapa hanya kau yang terluka
Trust me
Percayalah padaku
That’s the price of beauty
Itulah harga kecantikan
Who says you’re not pretty
Kata siapa kau tak anggun
Who says you’re not beautiful
Kata siapa kau tak cantik
Who says
Kata siapa

It’s such a funny thing
Sungguh hal yang lucu
How nothing’s funny when it’s you
Betapa tak ada yang lucu jika tentangmu
You tell ‘em what you mean
Kau bilang pada mereka arti dirimu
But they keep whiting out the truth
Tapi mereka terus abaikan kenyataan
It’s like a work of art
Seperti karya seni
That never gets to see the light
Yang tak pernah terkena cahaya
Keep you beneath the stars
Terus di bawah bintang
Won’t let you touch the sky
Tak biarkan kau menyentuh langit

PRE-CHORUS
CHORUS

BRIDGE
Who says you’re not star potential
Kata siapa kau bukan calon bintang
Who says you’re not presidential
Kata siapa kau tak bisa jadi presiden
Who says you can’t be in movies
Kata siapa kau tak bisa masuk film
Listen to me, listen to me
Dengarkan aku, dengarkanlah aku
Who says you don’t pass the test
Kata siapa kau tak lulus ujian
Who says you can’t be the best
Kata siapa kau tak bisa jadi yang terbaik
Who said, who said
Kata siapa, kata siapa
Won’t you tell me who said that
Katakanlah padaku itu kata siapa
Yeah, who said
Yeah, kata siapa
The Interpretation of song “who Says” by Selena Gomez
This song is about to be yourself and don’t listen to what others say. Just be what you wanna be. It’s not about what people says about you then you can easily change yourself like they wanna be but it’s about be yourself. From this song we can get many motivations. So we can proud with our own self. It’s about being yourself and don’t let another people say that you can’t be yourself or do what do you wanna do.
We can now that most of girls in the present tend to try to dress and try to be what they feel other people want to be. Everyone wants to follow the trend and what’s in and what’s cool. At the end of the day when you strip all that down, are you really proud of yourself are you really comfortable in your skin? Then what they get from those. Are we proud with our self when we have down those things? So we can learn many things from this song. When we want to be happy with our life just be your self and be confident with it.
We can learn how to improve our inner beauty by being own self and don’t imitate another people to show your potentiality. The singer believes that we can be the best and can do the best for our life without change anything. We must show our inner beauty, potential, and confident by our own way. We can know from words “Who Says” that always repeated on this song it mean that the singer try to motivated us don’t be afraid, don’t change your self to be another people, and she believe that you can be everything that you wanna be, just be your self.

RPP Reading Analytical exposition


RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN
(RPP)

Nama sekolah : MAN Salatiga
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Program : IPS
Kelas/Semester : XI (Sebelas) / 1
Tema : Analytical Exposition
Aspek/Skill : membaca
Alokasi Waktu : 2 x 45 menit

260812-1227

A. Standar Kompetensi :
5. Memahami makna fungsional pendek dan esei berbentuk report, narrative, analytical exposition, dalam konteks kehidupa sehari-hari dan untuk mengakses ilmu pengetahuan.
B. Kompetensi Dasar :
5.2. Merespon makna dan langkah retorika dalam esei yang mengunakan ragam bahasa tulis akurat, lancar, dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan untuk mengakses ilmu pengetahuan dalam teks bentuk: report, narrative, dan analytical exposition.
C. Tujuan Pembelajaran
Pada akhir pembelajaran, siswa dapat:
1. Mampu merespon makna gagasan (ideasional) dan informasi faktual dalam teks yang meliputi main ideas, supporting ideas, details.
2. Mampu mengidentifikasi langkah-langkah retorika wacana analytical exposition.
D. Karakter siswa yang diharapkan : Dapat dipercaya ( Trustworthines)
Rasa hormat dan perhatian ( respect )
Tekun ( diligence )
Tanggung jawab ( responsibility )
Berani ( courage )

E. Materi Pembelajaran
1. Analytical exposition
Definition of Analytical Exposition
It is a kind of text type that presents one side of an issue in a form of arguments. The purpose of analytical exposition is to persuade the readers by presenting one side of an argument. In other word, it can be said that an analytical exposition is used to argue point of view or to persuade the audience to do something. Analytical exposition text can be found in legal defenses, spoken arguments, advertisement, announcement, radio commercial and leaflet. Analytical exposition also the text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Its social function is to show the readers that the idea is the important matter.
Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition
1. Thesis : Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position. It consists of the author’s point of view (thesis), preview of the arguments that will follow in the next section, and a question or emotional statement to get audience attention.
2. Arguments : Explaining the arguments to support the writer’s position. This part is significant to support about the thesis. Therefore, it needs some requirements. They are explained as follow;
a) A new paragraph is used for each argument
b) Each new paragraph begins with topic sentence
c) After topic sentence comes the details to support the arguments
d) Emotive words are used to persuade the audience into believing the author.
3. Reiteration : Restating the writer’s position. A conclusion summing up the arguments: In this way, the author restates the author’s point of view (thesis)/ reiteration. Furthermore, summary of what has been stated in the section above may be included here.

The example of Analytical Exposition
Cars should be banned

Thesis
Cars should be banned in the city. As we all know, cars create pollution, and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents.

(Mobil harus dilarang di kota. Seperti yang kita ketahui, mobil membuat polisi dan membuat banyak kematian di jalan dan kecelakaan.)

Argument 1
Firstly, cars, as we all know, give contribution to the most of the pollution in the world. Cars emit deadly gas that causes illness such as bronchritis, lung cancer, and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them.

(Pertama, mobil, sebagai mana kita ketahui, menyumbang polusi terbanyak di dunia. Mobil mengeluarkan gas mematikan yang menyebabkan penyakit seperti bronchitis, kanker paru-paru, dan pemicu asthma. Beberapa penyakit tersebut sangatlah buruk bagi manusia yang bisa menyebabkan kematian.)
Argument 2
Secondly, the city is very busy. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrains in the city, which causes them to die. Cars today are our roads biggest killers.

(Yang kedua, kota sangatlah sibuk. Pejalan kaki berjalan ke mana-mana dan mobil umumnya menabrak pejalan kaki di kota, yang menyebabkan kematian. Mobil hari ini adalah pembunuh terbesar di jalan.)

Argument 3
Thirdly, cars are very noisy. If you live in the city, you may find it hard to sleep at night, or to concentrate on your homework, and especially when you talk to someone.

(Yang ketiga, mobil sangatlah berisik. Jika kamu tinggal di kota, kamu mungkin akan menjumpai sangat lah susah untuk tidur di malam hari atau untuk berkonsentrasi pada pekerjaan rumah kalian, dan khususnya ketika kamu berbicara kepada seseorang.)

Reiteration
In conclusion, cars should be benned from the city for the reason listed.

(Kesimpulannya, mobil harus dilarang dari kota berdasarkan alasan tersebut.)

2. Present tense
How do we use the Present Simple Tense?
We use the present simple tense when:
the action is general
the action happens all the time, or habitually, in the past, present and future
the action is not only happening now
the statement is always true
How do we make the Present Simple Tense?
(+) S+V1 (es/s)+O
(-) S+ do/Does + O For Ajective we add present to be (Am, Are, Is) and remove do/ does then follow by adjective
(?) Do/does+ S+O
There are three important exceptions:
For positive sentences, we do not normally use the auxiliary.
For the 3rd person singular (he, she, it), we add s to the main verb or es to the auxiliary.
For the verb to be, we do not use an auxiliary, even for questions and negatives.
F. Strategi Pembelajaran:
1. Metode Pembelajaran : Penjelasan, diskusi, dan tanya jawab.
2. Pendekatan Pembelajaran : Edukatif

G. Langkah-langkah Kegiatan
1. Kegiatan Pendahuluan (10 menit)
Apersepsi :
• Berdoa untuk mengawali pembelajaran.
• Tanya jawab tentang authentic material yang menjadi latar belakang pembahasan materi.
• Jugle paragraph: game ini yang akan mengarahkan siswa pada materi yang akan dijelaskan.
Motivasi :
• Menjelaskan pentingnya materi yang akan dipelari berikut kompetensi yang harus dikuasi siswa

2. Kegiatan Inti (70 menit)
a. Eksplorasi
Dalam kegiatan eksplorasi, guru:
• Melibatkan peserta didik mencari informasi yang luas dan dalam tentang topik/tema materi yang akan dipelajari.
• Mencocokkan tebakan siswa dengan materi yang ada dalam text book.
• Peserta didik mempelajari penjelasan dan contoh teks analytical exposition, present tense melalui audio visual, dan text tulis yang ada dalam text book. Guru menjelaskan hal-hal yang belum dipahami siswa.
• Menunjukan gambar untuk mengembangkan kreatifitas siswa dalam membuat kalimat yang sesuai dengan materi yang dibahas.
• Menyusun paragraf analytical exposition yang rumpang sesuai denga text organizationya.
• Menggunakan beragam pendekatan pembelajaran, media pembelajaran, dan sumber belajar lain;
• Memfasilitasi terjadinya interaksi antarpeserta didik serta antara peserta didik dengan guru, lingkungan, dan sumber belajar lainnya;
• Melibatkan peserta didik secara aktif dalam setiap kegiatan pembelajaran.
• Memfasilitasi peserta didik melakukan percobaan di laboratorium, studio, atau lapangan.
b. Elaborasi
Dalam kegiatan elaborasi, guru:
• Membiasakan peserta didik membaca dan menulis yang beragam melalui tugas-tugas tertentu yang bermakna;
• Memfasilitasi peserta didik melalui pemberian tugas, diskusi, dan lain-lain untuk memunculkan gagasan baru baik secara lisan maupun tertulis;
• Memberi kesempatan untuk berpikir, menganalisis, menyelesaikan masalah, dan bertindak tanpa rasa takut;
• Memfasilitasi peserta didik dalam pembelajaran kooperatif dan kolaboratif;
• Memfasilitasi peserta didik berkompetisi secara sehat untuk meningkatkan prestasi belajar;
• Memfasilitasi peserta didik membuat laporan eksplorasi yang dilakukan baik lisan maupun tertulis, secara individual maupun kelompok;
• Memfasilitasi peserta didik untuk menyajikan hasil kerja individual maupun kelompok;
• Memfasilitasi peserta didik melakukan pameran, turnamen, festival, serta produk yang dihasilkan;
• Memfasilitasi peserta didik melakukan kegiatan yang menumbuhkan kebanggaan dan rasa percaya diri peserta didik.
c. Konfirmasi
Dalam kegiatan konfirmasi, guru:
• Memberikan umpan balik positif dan penguatan dalam bentuk lisan, tulisan, isyarat, maupun hadiah terhadap keberhasilan peserta didik,
• Memberikan konfirmasi terhadap hasil eksplorasi dan elaborasi peserta didik melalui berbagai sumber,
• Memfasilitasi peserta didik melakukan refleksi untuk memperoleh pengalaman belajar yang telah dilakukan,
• Memfasilitasi peserta didik untuk memperoleh pengalaman yang bermakna dalam mencapai kompetensi dasar:
• Berfungsi sebagai narasumber dan fasilitator dalam menjawab pertanyaan peserta didik yang menghadapi kesulitan, dengan menggunakan bahasa yang baku dan benar;
• Membantu menyelesaikan masalah;
• Memberi acuan agar peserta didik dapat melakukan pengecekan hasil eksplorasi;
• Memberi informasi untuk bereksplorasi lebih jauh;
• Memberikan motivasi kepada peserta didik yang kurang atau belum berpartisipasi aktif.
• Guru bertanya jawab tentang hal-hal yang belum diktahui siswa
• Guru bersama siswa bertanya jawab meluruskan kesalahan pemahaman, memberikan penguatan dan penyimpulan

3. Kegiatan Penutup (10 menit)
Dalam kegiatan penutup, guru:
• bersama-sama dengan peserta didik dan/atau sendiri membuat rangkuman/simpulan pelajaran;
• melakukan penilaian dan/atau refleksi terhadap kegiatan yang sudah dilaksanakan secara konsisten dan terprogram;
• memberikan umpan balik terhadap proses dan hasil pembelajaran;
• merencanakan kegiatan tindak lanjut dalam bentuk pembelajaran remedi, program pengayaan, layanan konseling dan/atau memberikan tugas baik tugas individual maupun kelompok sesuai dengan hasil belajar peserta didik;
• menyampaikan rencana pembelajaran pada pertemuan berikutnya.
H. Alat dan Sumber belajar
a. Alat dan Media
Alat : Laptop, LCD, white board
Media : Power point, LKS Intan Pariwara SMA/MA XI, picture, authentic material
b. Sumber Belajar
Buku paket : Progress grade XI
Buku referensi : Look ahead 2
I. Penilaian
a. Teknik Penilaian
• Tugas kelompok : penilaian proses, karakter, dan keakuratan mengidentifikasi laguage feature of analytical exposition dalam test yang dibaca.
• Tugas Individu : penilaian kognitif
• Bentuk Instrumen
1. Pedoman observasi
2. Uraian objektive
3. Pilihan ganda
4. Isian
5. Jawaban singkat

b. Instrumen Evaluasi :
Indikator Pencapaian Kompetensi Teknik Penilaian Bentuk Instrumen Instrumen/ Soal
1. Mampu merespon makna gagasan (ideasional) dan informasi faktual dalam teks yang meliputi main ideas, supporting ideas, details.
2. Mampu mengidentifikasi langkah-langkah retorika wacana analytical exposition.
membaca

Tulis Uraian objectif

Isian • Read following the text.
• Read the following dialog.

• Provide the title the conclusion for the text.
• Make a paragraph depend on the picture using present tense to expresses the ideas.
• anaswer the questions based on the text.
• Arrage the paragraph depend on the text organization of the analytical exposition.

J. Pedoman Penilaian
• Rubic Pilihan Ganda
4 point for multiple-choice 25= 100
No Uraian Skor
1. Jawaban benar 4
2. Jawaban salah 0

Skor maksimal= 100
Nilai siswa= Skor perolehan x 10=
Skor maksimal (100)
• Rubrik Penilaian Tulis

4 point x skor 1-5= 100
Skor maksimal= 100
Nilai siswa= Skor perolehan x 10=
Skor maksimal (100)

Mengetahui;
Guru Pamong

( Nur Jadid,S.PdI )
NIP. 198008062006041022 Salatiga, 26 Agustus 2013
Guru Mapel Bahasa Inggris,

( Febri Ari Sandi )
NIM : 11310010

First challenge
Laela : Good morning, Ahmad.
Ahmad: Oh….hi,MorningLaela. How are you today?
Laela : I feel better today, thanks, Uhm…Is that today’s newspaper? Yeah, the one you are reading
Ahmad: Yup!
Laela : did you read that article in the paper about smoking? The person who wrote it must be crazy.
Ahmad: I don’t think so. I thing the government should do everything it can to discourage people from smoking.
Laela : Maybe so. But a law banning cigarettes does not good.
Ahmad: What do you mean? In my opinion, though you can’t suddenly make smoking illegal but it is important for the government to establish the law that prohibits smoking in public places like cinemas and hospital.
Laela : Yes, that’s true. But I think people should be allowed to smoke on the train and buses. Don’t you think so?
Ahmad : Not at all. It’s awful sitting next to someone blowing smoke smoke all over you, if you don’t smoke yourself.
Laela : Sure, I agree. But if you do smoke, and don’t forget, it isn’t a crime….
Ahmad: Well, that’s where the governmentcan help. It should make “NO SMOKING” compartments on all trains, buses, and aeroplanes, and there should be more “NO SMOKING” compartments that “Smoking”. Then, you’ll really discourage people from smoking.
Laela : Yes I suppose you’re right, on that basis, we agree that there should be some real effort to discourage people from smoking. Well, I’ve got to go now and hand in these paper to our teacher. It’s nice to have talked with you. Thanks, Ahmad.
Ahmad: Bye. Laela

The role for second challenge
Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses
Cara Pengerjaan: Dalam satu kelompok terdiri dari 4 orang
• Si 1,2,3 mengerjakan soal
• Si 4 menjadi pembaca estafet
• Si 5 menjadi penulis
• Si 6,7,8 menjadi Pengoreksi.

Uraian Skor
Isi benar, tata bahasa benar
Isi benar, tata bahasa kurang tepat
Isi dan tata bahasa kurang tepat
Tidak menjawab 3
2
1
0

SECOND CHALLENGE ACTIVE READING. Read the following teks. Then, answer the questions.

A. Read to text then complete the blanks use the suitable words that provided in the box.
The Importance of English Language

Personally think that English is the world’s most ________language. Why do I say that?
Firstly, English is international language. It is spoken by many people all over the________, either as a first or second language.
Secondly, English is also the key which opens doors to scientific and technical knowledge, which is needed for economic and political development of many ________in the world.
Thirdly, English is the top requirement of those seeking jobs. __________who master either passive or active English are more favorable than those who don’t.
From the fact above, it is obivious that everybody _____to learn English to greet the global era.

B. Answer these questions base on the text using complete answers.
1. Why is it so important to learn English?
2. What is the purpose of the writer in the text?
3. Do you think everybody will agree with the text? Why/why not?
4. What do you call this text?
5. What tense is mostly used in the text?

Evaluation ( Choose A, B, C, D, E for the correct answer)

Smoking in Restaurant
Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers.
Firstly, smoking in a restaurant is impolite. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke.
Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer.
Finally, smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere, not just in restaurants.
Therefore, smoking in restaurants is impolite, harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants.

1. Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because……
a) It is harmful to others
b) It is impolite
c) It’s dangerous to the smokers
d) It can cause heart and lung disease
e) All answers are correct

2. We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. The word reasons mean…..
a) conclusion
b) point of view
c) argument
d) reinforcement
e) statement

3. Since we can find a thesis, arguments and reiteration in the text, so we can conclude that this text belongs to…..
a) description
b) narration
c) anecdote
d) procedure
e) analytical exposition

4. What is the purpose of the text?
a) To inform the readers to the readers
b) To persuade to the readers
c) To describe to the readers
d) To tell a story to the readers
e) To argue about smoking to the readers

5. The synonym of the word dangerous in the text is……
a) rude
b) impolite
c) health risk
d) harmful
e) disease

6. Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers.
The sentence above characterize as….. of the text.
a) thesis
b) arguments
c) reiteration
d) topic sentence
e) supporting details

Learning English
Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning.
Firstly, “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant, shopping malls, etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory.
Secondly, songs in general also use simple conversational language, with a lot of repetition, which is just what many learners look for sample text. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. Although usually simple, some songs can be quite complex syntactically, lexically and poetically, and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample.
Furthermore, song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people, place or time reference.
In addition, songs are relaxing. They provide variety and fun, and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture, religion, patriotism and yeas, even revolution.
Last but not least, there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar, practicing selective listening comprehension, translating songs, learning vocabulary, spelling and culture.
From the elaboration above, it can be concluded that learning through music and songs, learning English can be enjoyable and fun.

7. The type of the text above is …
a) Analytical exposition
b) Hortatory exposition
c) Narrative
d) Discussion
e) Explanation

8. What is the communicative purpose of the text?
a) To tell the reader about the songs
b) To entertain the reader with the songs
c) To show the reader the use of songs
d) To explain above the songs
e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language

9. The generic structures of the text are ….
a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation
b) General statement – sequential explanation
c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources
d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration
e) General statement – arguments

10. What is the text about ….
a) Learning songs
b) Very enjoyable music
c) The phenomenon
d) Music listeners
e) Using songs in language learning

Evaluation ( Choose A, B, C, D, E for the correct answer)

Smoking in Restaurant
Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers.
Firstly, smoking in a restaurant is impolite. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke.
Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer.
Finally, smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere, not just in restaurants.
Therefore, smoking in restaurants is impolite, harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants.

1. Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because……
a) It is harmful to others
b) It is impolite
c) It’s dangerous to the smokers
d) It can cause heart and lung disease
e) All answers are correct

2. We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. The word reasons mean…..
a) conclusion
b) point of view
c) argument
d) reinforcement
e) statement

3. Since we can find a thesis, arguments and reiteration in the text, so we can conclude that this text belongs to…..
a) description
b) narration
c) anecdote
d) procedure
e) analytical exposition

4. What is the purpose of the text?
a) To inform the readers to the readers
b) To persuade to the readers
c) To describe to the readers
d) To tell a story to the readers
e) To argue about smoking to the readers

5. The synonym of the word dangerous in the text is……
a) rude
b) impolite
c) health risk
d) harmful
e) disease

6. Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers.
The sentence above characterize as….. of the text.
a) thesis
b) arguments
c) reiteration
d) topic sentence
e) supporting details

Learning English
Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning.
Firstly, “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant, shopping malls, etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory.
Secondly, songs in general also use simple conversational language, with a lot of repetition, which is just what many learners look for sample text. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. Although usually simple, some songs can be quite complex syntactically, lexically and poetically, and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample.
Furthermore, song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people, place or time reference.
In addition, songs are relaxing. They provide variety and fun, and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture, religion, patriotism and yeas, even revolution.
Last but not least, there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar, practicing selective listening comprehension, translating songs, learning vocabulary, spelling and culture.
From the elaboration above, it can be concluded that learning through music and songs, learning English can be enjoyable and fun.

7. The type of the text above is …
a) Analytical exposition
b) Hortatory exposition
c) Narrative
d) Discussion
e) Explanation

8. What is the communicative purpose of the text?
a) To tell the reader about the songs
b) To entertain the reader with the songs
c) To show the reader the use of songs
d) To explain above the songs
e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language

9. The generic structures of the text are ….
a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation
b) General statement – sequential explanation
c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources
d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration
e) General statement – arguments

10. What is the text about ….
a) Learning songs
b) Very enjoyable music
c) The phenomenon
d) Music listeners
e) Using songs in language learning

RPP Speaking Expression greeting,introducing, leave-taking


aku.jpgRENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN
(RPP)

Nama sekolah : MAN Salatiga
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Kelas/Semester : X (Sepuluh) / 1
Tema : Recounts
Aspek/Skill : membaca
Alokasi Waktu : 2 x 45 menit

A. Standar Kompetensi :
3. Mengungkapkan makna dalam percakapan transaksional dan interpersonal dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari.
B. Kompetensi Dasar
3.1. Mengungkapkan makna dalam percakapan transaksional (to get thing done) dan interpersonal (bersosialisasi) resmi dan tidak resmi secara akurat, lancar, dan berterimaan dengan ragam bahasa lisan sederhanadalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan melibatkan tindak tutur: berkenalan, bertemu/berpisah, menyetujui ajakan/ tawaran/undangan, menerima janji, dan membatalkan janji.
C. Indikator Pencapaian Kompetensi
• Merespon dengan benar tindak tutur: berkenalan, bertemu/berpisah.
• Melakukan berbagai tindakan tutur dalam wacana lisan interpersonal/ transaksional: berkenalan, bertemu/berpisah.
D. Tujuan Pembelajaran
Pada akhir pembelajaran, siswa dapat:
1. Peserta didik dapat merespon dengan benar tindakan tutur: berkenalan, bertemu/ berpisah.
2. Peserta didik dapat melakukan berbagai tindakan tutur wacana lisan interpersonal/ transaksional: berkenalan, bertemu/berpisah.
E. Karakter siswa yang diharapkan : Dapat dipercaya ( Trustworthines)
Rasa hormat dan perhatian ( respect )
Tekun ( diligence )
Tanggung jawab ( responsibility )
Berani ( courage )

F. Materi Pembelajaran
Introducing yourself The responses
There is a range of ways to introduce yourself to people.
Introducing yourself: Here are expressions to introduce yourself:
• My name is …
• I’m ….
• Nice to meet you; I come from…..
• Pleased to meet you; I’m ….
• Let me introduce myself; I’m …
• I’d like to introduce myself; I’m … Useful responses
• Hi. I’m Nita
• Hello, Ahmad. I’m Faiz. Glad to see you
• Hi. Nita. I’m faiz. I’m from Salatiga.
Introducing others The responses
Introducing others: Here are expressions to introduce others:
• Jack, please meet Nicolas.
• Jack, have you met Nicolas?
• I’d like you to meet Liza.
• I’d like to introduce you to Betty.
• Leila, this is Barbara. Barbara this is Leila. Useful responses other people:
• Nice to meet you.
• Pleased to meet you.
• Happy to meet you.
• How do you do?

Leave-taking Responding
• Goodbye.
• Sorry, I must go now.
• Take care.
• Goodnight,Laela.
• Have a nice day. • Bye bye.
• O.K see you.
• Thanks.
• Sure. Thank you.
• Goodnight, Laela.

Greetings The Responses
greetings
• Hello!
• Hello! Goodmorning etc
• How are you?
• How are you doing?
• How is everything?
• How’s everything going?
• How have you been keeping?
• I trust that everything is well.
• Hi.
• What’s up?
• Good to see you.
• How are things (with you)?
• How’s it going?
• How’s life been treating you? Responses
• Very well, thank you and how are you
• I’m good/okay/alright
• Very well. Thank you.
• Goodmorning
• I’m fine
• I’m fine too
• Fine, thanks
• Not to bad, thanks
• Oh pretty good
• Exellent

• Past tense
Positif: Subjek + V2
Negatif: Subjek + Did not + V1
Pertanyaan: Did + Subjek + V1 +?
G. Metode Pembelajaran
1. Metode pembelajaran: Total Physical Response (TPR), Chain speaking, Running Speaking.
2. Pendekatan pembelajaran: Edukatif
H. Langkah-langkah Kegiatan
1. Kegiatan Pendahuluan (10 menit)
Apersepsi :
• Berdoa untuk mengawali pembelajaran.(Nilai yang ditanamkan: santun dan peduli)
• Mengecek kehadiran siswa. (Nilai yang ditanamkan disiplin dan rajin)
• Warming-up activity: I will ask a one volunter to chat with me infront of class and another student try to guess what is expression that we do.

Motivasi :
• Menjelaskan pentingnya materi yang akan dipelari berikut kompetensi yang harus dikuasi siswa
2. Kegiatan Inti (70 menit)
Eksplorasi
Dalam kegiatan eksplorasi, guru:
• Memberikan stimulus berupa pemberian materi pertanyaan teks tindak tutur: berkenalan, bertemu, berpisah.
• Mediskusikan materi bersama siswa dalam text books
• Menggunakan beragam pendekatan pembelajaran, media pembelajaran, dan sumber belajar lain;
• Memberikan kesempatan kepada peserta didik mengkomunikasikan secara lisan atau mempresentasikanmengenai pertanyaan teks tindak tutur: berkenalan, bertemu, berpisah
• Memfasilitasi terjadinya interaksi antarpeserta didik serta antara peserta didik dengan guru, lingkungan, dan sumber belajar lainnya;
• Melibatkan peserta didik secara aktif dalam setiap kegiatan pembelajaran; dan
Elaborasi
Dalam kegiatan elaborasi, guru:
• Membiasankan siswa membuat kalimat tindak tutur: berkenalan, bertemu, berpisah.
• Memfasilitasi siwa untuk mengembangkan speaking skill berupa berbicara dan tanya-jawab dalam recount dan ekspresi berkenalan, bertemu, berpisah baik dengan cara memberi soal atau membahasa soal yang ada dalam buku.
Konfirmasi
Dalam kegiatan konfirmasi, guru:
• Memberikan umpan balik positif dan penguatan dalam bentuk lisan, tulisan, isyarat, maupun hadiah terhadap keberhasilan peserta didik,
• Memberikan komfirmasi pada hasil pekerjaan yang sudah dikerjakan oleh siswa melalui sumber buku lain.
• Guru bertanya jawab tentang hal-hal yang belum diktahui siswa
• Guru bersama siswa bertanya jawab meluruskan kesalahan pemahaman, memberikan penguatan dan penyimpulan.
• Guru memberikan motivasi kepada siswa yang masih kurang dan belum bisa mengikuti materi.
3. C. Kegiatan Penutup
Dalam kegiatan penutup, guru:
• bersama-sama dengan peserta didik dan/ atau sendiri membuat rangkuman/ simpulan pelajaran;
• melakukan penilaian dan/atau refleksi terhadap kegiatan yang sudah dilaksanakan secara konsisten dan terprogram;
• memberikan umpan balik terhadap proses dan hasil pembelajaran;
• merencanakan kegiatan tindak lanjut dalam bentuk pembelajaran remedi, program pengayaan, layanan konseling dan/atau memberikan tugas baik tugas individual maupun kelompok sesuai dengan hasil belajar peserta didik;
• menyampaikan rencana pembelajaran pada pertemuan berikutnya.
I. Alat dan Sumber belajar
a. Alat dan Media
Alat : Laptop, LCD, white board
Media : Power point, LKS Intan Pariwara SMA/MA X,
b. Sumber Belajar
Buku paket : Progress grade X
Buku referensi : Look Ahead 1
J. Penilaian
I. Indikator, Teknik, Bentuk, dan Contoh.
NO. Indikator Teknik Bentuk Contoh
1.

2. • Merespon dengan benar terhadap tindak tutur: berkenalan, bertemu, berpisah
• Peserta didik dapat melakukan berbagai tindakan tutur wacana lisan interpersonal/ transaksional: berkenalan, bertemu/berpisah.
Performance Assesssment (responding)
Test lisan Melengkapi dialog

Membuat dialog
Read and give your resdon to following expression
Fill the blank the dialog with correct answer then practice memorizing that dialog

II. Instrumen Penilaian
Ranti : Good afternoon, Sir.
Mr Bakri : Good afternoon. You are ….
Ranti : My name is Ranti. How are you?
Mr Bakri : I am fine, thank you. And how about you?
Ranti : I am fine, too.
MR Bakri : where do you come from
Ranti : I from Pengilon
Mr Bakri : Well, Ranti. I have to go now. Pleased to meet you.
Ranti : Pleased to meet you too, Sir.

III. Pedoman Penilaian

Oral Presentation Rubric
Presenter’s Name: ________________________ Judge’s Name: _____________
Speech/Presentation Topic:

CATEGORY
4 3 2 1

Poise

Displays confident posture without fidgeting or dancing.

Displays confident posture with little fidgeting or dancing.

Sometimes displays confident posture but also seems fidgety.

Lack of posture and an excess of fidgeting distracted from the actual speech.

Voice

Voice was used to convey emotions appropriately.

Voice was used but the emotion it conveyed sometimes did not fit the content.

Voice was rarely used OR the emotion it conveyed did not fit the content.

Voice was not used to convey emotion

Life

Facial expressions and body language generate a strong interest and enthusiasm about the topic in others.

Facial expressions and body language sometimes generate a strong interest and enthusiasm about the topic in others.

Facial expressions and body language are used to try to generate enthusiasm, but seem somewhat faked.

Very little use of facial expressions or body language. Did not generate much interest in topic being presented.

Eye Contact

Establishes eye contact with everyone in the room during the presentation.

Establishes eye contact with most everyone in the room during the presentation.

Sometimes establishes eye contact.

Does not look at people during the presentation, or looks only at the teacher.

Gestures
Uses appropriate gestures to enhance the speech.

Sometimes uses gestures to enhance the speech.

Gestures were used but seemed inappropriate or awkward.

Gestures were not used.

Speed

Speech seems to go at the perfect pace.

Speech was a little fast or a little slow.

Speech was too fast or too slow.

Speech was hard to follow because it was way too fast or too slow.

Total Score: _________ of 24
Additional Comments:

• Cara scoring
1. Skor untuk fill the blank 1 point untuk 6 soal= 1×6= 6
2. Skor 1-4 point untuk 6 kategori practice memorizing dialog= 4×6= 24

Sekor maksimal: 30
Nilai siswa = Skor Maksimal = 10
3

Mengetahui;
Guru Pamong

( Nurul Jazimah, M.PdI )
NIP. 197802192005012002 Salatiga, 19 Agustus 2013
Praktikan,

( Febri Ari Sandi )
NIM: 11310010

Evaluation
A. Ccomplete the dialog witch still blanks use the suitable expression that provided in the box.

Ranti :1._______________Sir.
Mr Bakri :Good afternoon. You are ….
Ranti :2____________. How are you?
Mr Bakri : I am fine, thank you.3______________?
Ranti : I am fine, too.
MR Bakri : 4.___________?
Ranti : I from Pengilon
Mr Bakri : Well, Ranti. 5_____________. Pleased to meet you.
Ranti :6________________, Sir.

B. After you fill the dialog try to memorize that dialog with your partner and practice it to get the score.

• Answer key
1. Good afternoon.
2. My name Ranti.
3. And how about you.
4. Where do you come from?
5. I have to go now.
6. Pleased to meet you too.

Exercise
Dalam satu kelas siswa dibagi menjdi 2 kelompok. Kelompok 1mendapatkan prompt cards A dan kelompok 2 mendapat prompt cards B. Kemudian siswa akan berdiri membentuk lingkaran atau kotak yang dimana kelompok 1 didalam lingkaran atau kotak dan kelompok 2 berada di luar kotak atau lingkaran. Kemudian mereka berhadapat dan melakukan tanya jawab setelah selesai meraka akan bertanya kepada siswa yang lainnya.
Give Student A get a copy of card 1A, and give Student B a copy of card 1B. Explain and ask them to have a short conversation. B asks the questions, and A answers them.
prompt cards
1A. Who answer: the situation is morning.Then you meet your friends at school, and you talk about your experiences when you went to night market (your experiences: crowded, noise,pleasured, bought many thing) . Then the bell ring so you must go to class so you end the conversation with your friend.
1B Questioner: you must give this question to your friend and listen what he/she answers

-Goodmorning?
-how are you today?
- yesterday you did you go to night market?
- could you tell me your experiences when you went to night market?
- Oh..the bell ring so our time is up…but I’m happy can heard your experiences at night market yesterday. Okay, I have to go now. Pleased to meet you

1A. Who answer: the situation is morning.Then you meet your friends at school, and you talk about your experiences when you went to night market (your experiences: crowded, noise,pleasured, bought many thing) . Then the bell ring so you must go to class so you end the conversation with your friend.

Pleased to meet you too 1B Questioner: you must give this question to your friend and listen what he/she answers

-Goodmorning?
-how are you today?
- yesterday you did you go to night market?
- could you tell me your experiences when you went to night market?
- Oh..the bell ring so our time is up…but I’m happy can heard your experiences at night market yesterday. Okay, I have to go now. Pleased to meet you

1A. Who answer: the situation is morning.Then you meet your friends at school, and you talk about your experiences when you went to night market (your experiences: crowded, noise,pleasured, bought many thing) . Then the bell ring so you must go to class so you end the conversation with your friend.

Pleased to meet you too 1B Questioner: you must give this question to your friend and listen what he/she answers

-Goodmorning?
-how are you today?
- yesterday you did you go to night market?
- could you tell me your experiences when you went to night market?
- Oh..the bell ring so our time is up…but I’m happy can heard your experiences at night market yesterday. Okay, I have to go now. Pleased to meet you

1A. Who answer: the situation is morning.Then you meet your friends at school, and you talk about your experiences when you went to night market (your experiences: crowded, noise,pleasured, bought many thing) . Then the bell ring so you must go to class so you end the conversation with your friend.

Pleased to meet you too 1B Questioner: you must give this question to your friend and listen what he/she answers

-Goodmorning?
-how are you today?
- yesterday you did you go to night market?
- could you tell me your experiences when you went to night market?
- Oh..the bell ring so our time is up…but I’m happy can heard your experiences at night market yesterday. Okay, I have to go now. Pleased to meet you

Evaluation
A. Ccomplete the dialog witch still blanks use the suitable expression that provided in the box.

Ranti :1._______________Sir.
Mr Bakri :Good afternoon. You are ….
Ranti :2____________. How are you?
Mr Bakri : I am fine, thank you.3______________?
Ranti : I am fine, too.
MR Bakri : 4.___________?
Ranti : I from Pengilon
Mr Bakri : Well, Ranti. 5_____________. Pleased to meet you.
Ranti :6________________, Sir.

B. After you fill the dialog try to memorize that dialog with your partner and practice it to get the score.

RPP Listening Narrative


395347_354639757881615_100000067804657_1491123_947843929_aRENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN
(RPP)

Nama sekolah : MAN Salatiga
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Kelas/Semester : X (Sepuluh) / 1
Tema : Narrative
Aspek/Skill : Listening
Alokasi Waktu : 2 x 45 menit

A. StandarKompetensi :
4. Memahami maknadalamteks monolog sederhana yang mengunakanragambahasalisan yang akurat, lancar, berterimadalamberbagaikontekskehidupansehari-haridalamteks: recount, narrative,dan procedure dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari.

B. Kompetensi Dasar
4.2. Merespon makna dalam teks monolog sederhana yang mengunakan ragam bahasa lisan yang akurat, lancar, berterima dalam berbagai konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dalam teksnarrative, dan procedure.

C. Indikator Pencapaian Kompetensi
• Merespon dan berinteraksi mealaui teks monolog sederhana berbentuknarrative.
• Melakukan teks monologsederhana berbentuk narrative.
• Menjawab pertanyaan teks monolog sederhana berbentuk narrative.
• Melakukan teks monolog lisan berbentuk narrative.
• Mempresentasikan teks monolog lisan berbentuk narrative.

D. TujuanPembelajaran
Padaakhirpembelajaran, siswadapat:
• Peserta didik dapat merespon dan berinteraksi mealaui teks monolog sederhana berbentuk narrative.
• Peserta didik dapat melakukan teks monologsederhana berbentuk narrative.
• Peserta didik dapat menjawab pertanyaan teks monolog sederhana berbentuk narrative.
• Peserta didik dapat melakukan teks monolog lisan berbentuk narrative.
• Peserta didik dapat mempresentasikan teks monolog lisan berbentuk narrative.

E. Karaktersiswa yang diharapkan : Bersahabat/komunikatif (communicative)
Rasa hormat dan perhatian ( respect )
Berani ( courage )

F. MateriPembelajaran
Listening

“Fly To Your Heart”
Watch all the flowers
Dance with (1)_________
Listen to (2)____________
Whisper your name
Feel all the wonder
Lifting your dreams
You can fly
(Fly)

Fly to who you are
Climb upon your star
(3)_________you’ll find your wings
Fly
To your heart

Touch every rainbow
Painting the sky
Look at (4)__________
Glide through your life
A (5)______ of pixie dust circles the night
You can fly

Fly to who you are
Climb upon your star
You believe (6) ___________your wings
Fly

Everywhere you go
Your soul will find a home
You’ll be free to spread your wings
Fly
You can fly
To your heart
(Fly, fly)

Rise to the heights of all you can be
(Fly, Fly)
(7)_______ the hope of marvelous things

(Key Change!)
Fly to who you are
(8)__________your star
You believe you’ll find your wings
Fly

Everywhere you go
(9)_______will find a home
You’ll be free to spread your wings
Fly
You can fly
(10)___________

“Fly To Your Heart”
Watch all the flowers
Dance with the wind
Listen to snowflakes
Whisper your name
Feel all the wonder
Lifting your dreams
You can fly
(Fly)

Fly to who you are
Climb upon your star
You believe you’ll find your wings
Fly
To your heart

Touch every rainbow
Painting the sky
Look at the magic
Glide through your life
A sprinkle of pixie dust circles the night
You can fly

Fly to who you are
Climb upon your star
You believe you’ll find your wings
Fly

Everywhere you go
Your soul will find a home
You’ll be free to spread your wings
Fly
You can fly
To your heart
(Fly, fly)

Rise to the heights of all you can be
(Fly, Fly)
Soar on the hope of marvelous things

(Key Change!)
Fly to who you are
Climb upon your star
You believe you’ll find your wings
Fly

Everywhere you go
Your soul will find a home
You’ll be free to spread your wings
Fly
You can fly
To your heart

Wacth Cindy_rella movie

Listening (fill in the blanks with right words)
The Magic Cadle
One day, a young wonderer got lost in a 1___________, Suddently he saw a light from an old hut. He knocked on the door and old women opened it. She was craying. She said that devil had 2___________ her magic candle. The candle could 3_____________ anything she asked. The wanderer asked her where he live. “in a castle not far from here” said the old woman.
The wanderer went to the castle. There he found a devil, but he was old and 4__________ therefore when the wanderer grabbed the magic cndlem from the devil’s table and run away, he couldn’t 5__________him.
The wanderer was not a 6_____________ man. He didn’t 7___________ the magic cadle to old women, but he kept it for himself. He lit the cadle and made a 8_____________, “ I want to go a far away from here”. Suddenly the ginies appeared and took him to a beautiful palace. There was a party in the palace. There the wanderer 9___________ in love with a princess. They got married, in his happiness, the wanderer told to the princess about his adventure and the magic candle. Hearing that, the princess got very angry.At night she lit the candle and wished that that wanderer 10_____________.
In the morning the wnderer awoke up and found himself back to his ugly house in the village.
-the answers and the vocabulary
1. Wood
2. Stolen
3. Grand
4. Weak
5. Chase
6. Kind
7. Trun
8. Wish
9. Fell
10. Disappear

G. Metode Pembelajaran
1. Metode pembelajaran: CLT , Chinese Whispers, Backs to the Board.
2. Pendekatan pembelajaran: Edukatif

H. Langkah-langkahKegiatan
1. KegiatanPendahuluan (10 menit)
a. Apersepsi:
• Berdoa untuk mengawali pembelajaran.(Nilai yang ditanamkan: santun dan peduli)
• Mengecek kehadiran siswa. (Nilai yang ditanamkan disiplin dan rajin)
• Warming-up activity: Listen a music to the student and ask the student about the word or sentences that they heard from the music.

Motivasi :
• Menjelaskan pentingnya materi yang akan dipelari berikut kompetensi yang harus dikuasi siswa

2. KegiatanInti (70 menit)
b. Eksplorasi
Dalam kegiatan eksplorasi, guru:
• Melibatkanpesertadidikmencariinformasi yang luasdandalamtentangtopik/materi yang akandipelajari.
• Medengarkan kepada siwa contoh text narrative dan menjelaskan vocabularies yang bertanda tebal dalam teks kemudian siswa mengucapkan kembali vocabularies sesui dengan yang mereka dengarkan dalam audio.
• Menjelaskan makna dan fungsi teks yang telah didengarkan.
• Mengajak siswa untuk mempraktekkan mejadi pendegar yang baik. Melalui mendengarkan audio dan dan kegiatan lain yang dimana mengembangkan listening skill mereka.
• Peserta didik mengerjakan soal berupa melengkapi teks yang belum lengkap
• Menggunakan beragam pendekatan pembelajaran, media pembelajaran, dan sumber belajar lain.
• Memberikan kesempatan kepada peserta didik untuk menjadi pendengar yang baik dan pintar dalam mengkomunikasikan secara lisan atau terteulis dalam bentuknarrative
• Memfasilitasi terjadinya interaksi antarpeserta didik serta antara peserta didik dengan guru, lingkungan, dan sumber belajar lainnya.
• Melibatkan peserta didik secara aktif dalam setiap kegiatan pembelajaran.

Elaborasi
Dalam kegiatan elaborasi, guru:
• Membiasankan siswa menjadi pendegar yang baik sehingga dapat mengkomunikasikan sesuatu baik dalam bentuk lisan maupun tertulis.
• Memfasilitasi siwa untuk mengembangkan listening skill yang berupa narrative

Konfirmasi
Dalam kegiatan konfirmasi, guru:
• Memberikanumpanbalikpositifdanpenguatandalambentuklisan, tulisan, isyarat, maupunhadiahterhadapkeberhasilanpesertadidik,
• Memberikan komfirmasi pada hasil pekerjaan yang sudah dikerjakan oleh siswa melalui sumber buku lain.
• Guru bertanya jawab tentang hal-hal yang belum diketahui siswa
• Guru bersama siswa bertanya jawab meluruskan kesalahan pemahaman, memberikan penguatan dan penyimpulan.
• Guru memberikan motivasi kepada siswa yang masih kurang dan belum bisa mengikuti materi.

3. C. Kegiatan Penutup
Dalam kegiatan penutup, guru:
• bersama-samadenganpesertadidikdan/atausendirimembuatrangkuman/simpulanpelajaran;
• melakukan penilaian dan/atau refleksi terhadap kegiatan yang sudah dilaksanakan secara konsisten dan terprogram;
• memberikan umpan balik terhadap proses dan hasil pembelajaran;
• merencanakan kegiatan tindak lanjut dalam bentuk pembelajaran remedi, program pengayaan, layanan konseling dan/atau memberikan tugas baik tugas individual maupun kelompok sesuai dengan hasil belajar peserta didik;
• menyampaikan rencana pembelajaran pada pertemuan berikutnya.

I. AlatdanSumberbelajar
a. Alatdan Media
Alat : Laptop, LCD, white board
Media :LKS Intan Pariwara SMA/MA X,
b. SumberBelajar
Bukupaket : Progress grade X
Bukureferensi : Look Ahead 1

J. Penilaian
I. Indikator, Teknik, Bentuk, dan Contoh.
NO. Indikator Teknik Bentuk Contoh
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
• Merespon dan berinteraksi mealaui teks monolog sederhana berbentu dan narrative.
• Mealakukan teks monologsederhana berbentuk narrative.
• Menjawab pertanyaan teks monolog sederhana berbentuk narrative.
• Melakukan teks monolog lisan berbentuk narrative.
• Mempresentasikan teks monolog lisan berbentuk narrative.
Test Tulis Melengkapi dialog atau monolog

Listen and answer the questions

Fill in blank the dialog or monolog with correct answer and be better listener

II. Instrumen Penilaian : LKS Inta Pariwara hal 35 (listening Narrative excercises B and C)
A. Listen and complete the text based on what you have heard
once upon a time there was an old miser, who lived with his wife near a great town. He used to (1) put by every bit of money he could lay his hands on. His wife a simple woman and they lived together without (2)proling, but she was obliged to put up every hard fare. At times, when there was some money and she wanted a decent dinner or (3) supper, she usually asked the miser for it, but he would say, “NO, wife, we must keep it for good fortune.” Almost (4) every cointhat came into that house was put by good fortune.
The miser said this so often, that some of (5) Neighbors heard him. One of then thought of atrick to (6) to get the money. So the first day the old man was away from home, he (7)dressedhim self like a wayfarer, and knocked on the door. “who are you” said the wife.
He asked, “I am Good Fortune and I’ve come for the money (8) your husband had laid by for me.” The simple woman did not (9) see pact anything. She gave it all to him.
When the miser arrived home, the women told him very pleasantly that Good Fortune had taken the money which had been (10) caps so long for him.

A. Answer the text based on the text in Task A
1. What was the man’s character like? His character as a miser
2. What was the woman obligated to do? The woman obligated to put up every hard fare
3. What did the man say when his wife wanted to use just a little amount of money? He say , “NO, wife, we must keep it for good fortune.”
4. Who wanted to play a tric on the man and his wife? Their neighbors
5. When did he play the trick? In the first day when the old man was away from home
6. How did the person dress? He dressed like a wayfarer
7. Who did he pretend to be? He pretend to be Good Fortune
8. What did the woman do for the man?Gave all the money
9. What did the woman tell hear husband about the man?the women told him very pleasantly that Good Fortune had taken the money which had been?
10. What can we learn from the story? Don’t be miser

Cara scoring

1. Skor untuk fill in the blank 1 point untuk10soal= 2×10= 20
2. Menjawab soal berdasarkan teks B yang telah didengkan 3point/soal untuk 10= 3×10= 30

Sekor maksimal: 50
Nilai siswa = Skor Maksimal x 10= 100
5

Mengetahui Salatiga, 22 Agustus 2013
Guru Pamong Praktikan

( Nurul Jazimah, M.PdI ) (Febri Ari Sandi)
NIP. 197802192005012002 NIM: 11310010

Assessment for Leraning Plan


Essay 2: Assessment for Leraning Plan

Teacher            :

School             : Senior High School

Class                : XI

Semester          : 1

Standard for class XI at first semester in senior high school include six standard competencies and 4 skills they are listening, speaking, reading and writing. Teacher as the center of students should know the function of AFL well. Teacher should be creative to makes AFL more interest and fun. In another way teacher is able to apply many ways to makes assessment to be easy for student, but the existed must be concern with the basic standard purposes. The material of AFL should include English basic standard, because it has purpose to broaden and rise up their figure out of their study and their abilities.   In this semester I would like to teach simple past tenses to my students and also the uses in narrative and recount text. So, I would use assessment for learning to control and know the student’s ability in mastering simple past tenses especially to tell past event. The goal when I teach them simple past tenses is hopefully students can understand the usage of simple past and identify whether the verb is past or present and regular or irregular verb.

I will use AFL to make my students mastering in master simple past on a specific text like narrative and recount text and the application to help them improve their writing, reading, listening and speaking skills. I try to make simple conversation about their experience using simple past and then I ask to them to be voluntary to share their experience in front of the class. For the example: a give them theme about a bad experiences. Then they will share their experiences using simple past. I try to ask to another students who to be listener to make a report about their friends experiences.

As a teacher, I will explain the material clearly to the students until they understand. So that’s why I should manage the class carefully and control the student’s understanding until they understand well the material that I have explained. When they do not understand, I will explain it more and more. For this situation I will be a facilitator that students need ask question or explain materials. Interaction between teacher and students must be smoothly, when they not know about the vocabularies about what they mean I will help them. So we can work together to help the students to reach their goal. To do this work, as a teacher I will explain for them the goal or target that they should do in this semester. I will explain them that in this semester students are asserted to master simple past on narrative and recount text. So, my role in this class are explain the materials, give the students example, give them exercise to help them master the materials, give them feedback to help them correct and evaluate their ability, give them score to measure the students ability.

Students role in this class are they will be able to know their goal and target study in this semester, students will be active and creative to do assessment and exercise in the class, students will be able to give responses in the lesson, students will be able to know their ability and achievement when the teacher give them exercise or activity they should do in the class, students will be able to know their mistakes and errors so they can correct or evaluate to make it better, students should know their position as a learner they  must be active in the class to make them reach the target of study.

The activities that I will do in my class are: First, I will ask the students to choose one of questions from the questions above to interview their friends about a topic that happened in the past, for example their last vacation, where they were go in holiday, their childhood, or another topic. This assessment has purpose to enrich their simple past tense when communicate with their partner. I will control their speaking ability during they interrogate their friends. I will know the understanding of my students then I will give them feedback to correct their mistake.

After doing this activity I will ask my students to write down their investigation using simple past and then share it in front of the class, in order to help students to improve their speaking also writing skill.

Next I will give them card picture they should make story by the card using simple past so they could make a good story by it student is able to practice to use their simple past and student is able to write a good sentence using simple past they also could practice using conjunction so they could connected one sentence with another sentence.

In additional student could know their progress. To show their progress I give a card score to all students. I ask to them to correct their friend’s story and write the wrong sentence and give the right sentence. I will watch them and correct again their papers. By these activities students will get motivation from me and their friends.  Don’t forget I will give them feedback and wash back because it have purpose to grow up their self abilities and to show them abilities so they will get more spirit to enrich their English abilities.

Explanation of Standards for Selected Semester


Essay 1: Explanation of Standards for Selected Semester

Senior High School Class XI

Standard-based education is important for learning process because it will become the source to make materials for study and the roles for the teachers. It is the standard which use to make curriculum which focus to make materials for the state, national, and local educational standards. It is become the roles how to teach and how to learn for students and teachers. So it has purpose to get education goals base on the standard-based educational. Standard-based education is made to make all aspects in the learning process work together including curriculum, teaching, assessment, and lesson and testing to measure the student’s abilities. Using it teacher is able to compose the way how to teach their student to get education goal without cash out their level and abilities of their grade.

Even though, it is difficult to do to use standard without cash out their level and their abilities, but because it teacher has sight to arrange materials for them using many alternative assessment and methods. In another hand Standards have several important functions such as for the teacher about how to teach and what to teach for students at the class and for the students how to learn. So the teachers will know their function at the class and will help their students to Increase their Achievement because standards are focused on essential concepts, knowledge, skills and behaviors necessary for students to succeed in their learning process.

Standards try to explain and provide all students need clearly such as what all students should learn, what they learn must be new follow the era or technology and each school’s responsibility in that effort. Standards try to force all educational is equal for all students in a nation or state without look the geographical factors. Even though, every schools might to evaluated and recognized for how well students perform on local and state examinations. Although standard-based education has several functions there are advantages and disadvantages in the learning process especially for the students and teachers.

The advantages of standards-based education these are: it makes education “fair” because all students at an schools have the same experiences, it’s “fair” because students ability is compared to the standards, not to other student so it’s make equal of them, they also get the system which are aligned, they also are able to prepare their self to face final examination, because it has roles and the materials which should be follow to gives guidance for teacher and students.

The disadvantages of standards-based education these are: It make the standards educational don’t same with students ability, because the standard ignore geographical factors it is usually make the standard too high for students, teacher also less their independence because they must follow and do the instruction on standards, students also could not improve their skills because they only study and learn the materials that included in the standard.  In addition the examination can be unfair.

I am going to teach in Senior High school class in the second semester. In this semester there are six standard competencies and 4 skills they are listening, speaking, reading and writing. In the listening skill there are two standard competencies and each standard has two standard based competencies. In the writing and speaking skills standard hopefully students will be able to understand the meaning of the conversation which is use retell tales and fables, express relief, pain, pleasure/pleased, agree and disagree expressions.

 The other standard competency in this semester is the students will understand and use narrative and recount text to communicate with their environment. In this semester students will be able to give a response the meaning, grammar (Conjunction and relative clause and general structure of narrative and recount text. Especially in reading and writing skills standard students will be able to read, write and comprehend narrative and recount text. In reading skill standard there are three standard base competencies where the students will be able to read narrative and recount text fluently with correct intonation, students will be able to give responses texts accurately, students will be able to give responses in narrative and recount texts. The student’s responses can be expressed in the writing skills where the students will be able to use simple past tense in narrative and recount text in their writing practices.

If I were a teacher of Senior high school class XI in the second semester, I would teach Conjunction and relative clause because in the standard the objective is the students will be able to understand and make narrative and recount texts. So it is necessary for the students to understand and able to make sentences using Conjunction and relative clause, because narrative and recount text Conjunction and relative clause. I will explain to my students the forms of Conjunction and relative clause. Conjunction and relative clause is used to connect the stances in the narrative text or make join sentences. We can also join up sentences in other ways using Relative pronouns.

In this class I will explain the examples and the types of conjunction:

e.g. 1. I seized the cat, took a small knife out of my pocket, and cut one of its eyes out.

       2. I hung the poor creature until it was dead.

       3. I soon began dislike the cat because it often stared at me with a stared and hatred look.

Type of conjunction Examples
Time After, before, since, while, when, as
Result So, so that
Contrast Although, though, even though, while
Reason As, because, in case, for
Purpose So that, in order that
Manner As, as if, as though

In this semester, I will ask my students to create or tell folklore that is very popular in our hometown, for example Banyu Wangi, Baru Klinthing, Malin Kundang,etc. Telling folklore will help my students to remember that they should tell using conjunction and also they learn about narrative text. I will divide my students into 2 or 4 groups, each group should make dialogue about folklore that they have chosen  and then each group perform in front of the class.

Siapa Bilang Ukhti Tidak Cantik ?


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(¸.•´ (¸.•´ ♥♥ Siapa Bilang Ukhti Tidak Cantik ? ♥♥

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بِسْــــــــــــــمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيْـــــمِ

CANTIK….

Bagi sebagian wanita,
Beberapa orang mungkin mempunyai persepsi beda-beda tentang cantik.
Bahkan ada yang bilang kalau cantik itu relatif. Itu benar.
Tapi saya tambahkan sebait puisi beriku sebagai Motivasi:

Menjadi wanita itu kehendak Tuhan
Menjadi Cantik itu relatif
Menjadi muslimah itu anugrah
Tetapi menjadi muslimah yg sholehah itu PILIHAN !

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Namun, seiring dengan maraknya produk-produk kecantikan di TV. Kita jadi berpikir kalau yang di sebut wanita cantik itu adalah yang seperti model di produk kecantikan tersebut. Berkulit putih, berhidung mancung, berbibir tipis, dan semua yang tampak pada si model.

Sehingga terciptalah image, bahwa wanita yang berkulit gelap, hidungnya mancung ke dalam dan berbibir tebal itu adalah wanita yang jelek.
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Ukhti, jika sekarang kamu merasa kalau wajahmu gak cantik. Cobalah pandang kembali wajahmu ke cermin. Lihatlah betapa Allah telah menyempurnakan bentuk wajahmu. Bayangkanlah jika seandainya Allah menciptakan lubang hidungmu bukan menghadap ke bawah, tapi ke depan. Bisa ukhti bayangkan apa yang terjadi jika ada lalat dan nyamuk yang terbang nyasar ke dalam hidung mu. Atau jika Allah menciptakan lubang hidung mu menghadap ke atas, bisa dibayangkan jika musim hujan tiba, Ukh. Hidung kita akan menampung air hujan yang turun dari langit.
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Atau bisa kamu bayangkan jika Allah menciptakan sepasang matamu ditaruh dijidat atau telingamu hanya sebelah. Wah, bentuknya pasti gak karuan rupa. Jangankan manusia yg melihatnya, hantupun juga akan takut melihatnya…hihi..

Sungguh Maha Suci Allah atas semua ciptaan-Nya.
Karena Allah sendiri yang bersumpah dalam firman-Nya :

“ Sungguh, Kami telah menciptakan manusia dalam bentuk yang sebaik-baiknya. ” (QS. At-Tin: 4)

Sungguh, mudah bagi Allah menciptakan seluruh wanita di dunia ini dengan wajah yang cantik semua. Tapi dengan begitu, kita jadi sama. Tidak ada yang menjadi pembedanya. Kita jadi sulit mengenal jika wajah kita sama semua, Ukh….

Allah ingin menciptakan keindahan di dunia ini,
dengan banyak perbedaan di dalamnya….

Maka biarlah kita menjadi salah satu yang indah itu, Ukh. Dengan segala perbedaan di antara kita….

Aku jadi teringat dialog salah seorang sahabatku dengan mamanya beberapa tahun yang lalu.

“ Ma, hidung Aya kok pesek sih? Gak kayak temen-temen Aya yang lain. Aya jadi keliatan jelek. ”

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Waktu itu mamanya ketawa, dan bilang :

“ Aya harus bersyukur karena di beri hidung sama Allah. Coba bayangin kalo Aya gak di kasih hidung sama Allah? Trus siapa yang bilang kalau hidung pesek itu jelek? Buktinya banyak kok yang hidungnya mancung tapi kelihatan jelek. Sedangkan Aya, walaupun pesek tapi cantik. Aya anak mama yang paling cantik.. ”

Ya jelas aja mama bilang kalo aku adalah anaknya yang paling cantik, karena adek-adeknya ‘kan cowok semua.

Tapi waktu itu Aya serasa melambung ke langit, karena di puji oleh mama. Dan ketika Aya beranjak dewasa, Aya tau mamanya hanya ingin membuat Aya merasa selalu bersyukur atas pemberian-Nya.

Yaa Ukhti, Syukur.
Itulah perasaan yang harus kita miliki. Bukan perasaan minder dan sedih.

Bersyukurlah, karena Allah menciptakan mu dengan sempurna. Bersyukurlah, karena banyak yang telah Dia beri pada mu, pada kita. Bahkan jika kita mencoba menghitung nikmat-Nya, tidak akan cukup waktu kita untuk menghitungnya
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Bersyukurlah Ukhti….Seperti yang Dia katakan padamu :

“ Jika engkau bersyukur kepada-Ku, niscaya akan Ku tambah nikmat-Ku kepadamu. Namun jika engkau mengingkari nikmat-Ku, sesungguhnya azab-Ku amat pedih. ” (QS. Ibrahim : 7)

Aku pun jadi teringat dengan ucapan salah seorang temanku beberapa waktu lalu,

“aku ini jelek, pasti nggak ada ikhwan yang mau jadi suami ku.”

Tapi ternyata, 4 bulan sesudahnya dia menikah. Subhanallah..

Masyaallah Ukh….jika ada pikiran suudzon kepada Allah terlintas di dada dan otakmu tentang bentuk wajahmu ,maka Ingatlah kembali janji-Nya pada kita,

“ ….perempuan-perempuan yang baik untuk laki-laki yang baik….. ”
(QS. An-Nur : 26)

Allah tidak pernah mengingkari janji-Nya, Ukh….
Di ayat itu, Allah tidak berfirman kalau perempuan-perempuan yang cantik untuk laki-laki yang baik…

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Bukan, Ukh…bukan cantik….tapi baik !

Maka perbaikilah diri kita dengan akhlak Qur’ani, bukan malah mempercantik diri dengan make-up tebal seperti wanita-wanita jahiliyah di zaman Rasulullah dulu.

Percayalah, Ukhti ..!
Laki-laki itu datang bukan karena kecantikan, kekayaan dan kepandaianmu.

Bukan, Ukhti…!!
tapi karena Allah lah yang menggerakkan hatinya untuk mengkhitbahmu,
untuk menyempurnakan setengah agama bersama-sama denganmu.

maka tunggulah janji Allah itu, karena janji Allah akan pasti datangnya.

Kalaupun tidak di dunia ini, insyaallah… Allah mempertemukanmu dengannya
di alam yang abadi….alam yang tidak ada keburukan di dalamnya….hanya ada keindahan….

insyaallah….

Jadi, jangan merasa minder atau sedih jika ada yang mengatakan kalau wajahmu gak cantik, Ukhti

Karena Allah yang menjamin, bahwa Dia telah menciptakanmu dengan sebaik-baiknya bentuk.

Dan bila rasa sedih itu masih ada karena seisi dunia menganggapmu bukanlah wanita yang cantik, dengarkanlah kembali firman-Nya yang dapat menenangkan hatimu….

“ Dan janganlah kamu merasa lemah, dan janganlah pula kamu bersedih hati. Sebab kamu paling tinggi derajatnya, jika kamu orang yang beriman. ”
(QS. Ali ‘Imran : 139)

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Percayalah, Ukhti.. Beratnya timbangan amalanmu di Hari Akhir nanti tidak lah
di tentukan dengan seberapa banyak orang di dunia ini yang menganggap kamu cantik. Tapi seberapa banyak orang di dunia ini yang menganggap kamu baik. Insyaallah, mereka akan menjadi saksi di hadapan Allah atas semua amal kebaikanmu….

Insyaallah….

Untuk yang terakhir,
izinkan aku mengutip salah satu kalimat dari sebuah buku yang pernah ku baca:

“ Semua bunga itu cantik. Tidak ada bunga yang tidak cantik, walaupun mekar dengan cara yang berbeda-beda. ”

Subhanallah, kita semua cantik Ukhti !!!
Dan semoga, kita bukan hanya cantik, tapi juga baik…..
Sebuah renungan untukku, untukmu, untuk kita semua.
Semoga tulisan ini dapat membuka pintu hati yang terkunci

ღ☆ღ*¨*¤*ღ☆ღ*¨*¤.¸¸::♥::♥::.¸¸.¤*¨*ღ☆ღ¸.¤*¨*ღ☆ღ
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`•.¸.•´ Semoga Artkel singkat ini memberikan manfaat untuk kita semua.
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(¸.•´ (¸.•´ ♥ SALAM UHIBBUKUM FILLAH ♥ Aamiin ya Robbal ‘alamiin ♥
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•*¨*♥♥ Thufail Na’im Ar’Syahid ♥*¨*♥*¨*♥ Khaura Al-Intifadhah ♥♥*¨*•

Asbabun Nuzul


BAB I
PENDAHULUAN
A. Latar Belakang Permasalahan
Ilmu Asbabun Nuzul termasuk diantara ilmu-ilmu yang penting. Ilmu ini menunjukan menyingkapkan hunbungan antra adialektika antara teks dengan realitas yang ada. Terkadang banyak ayat yang turun, sedang sebabnya hanya satu. dalam hal ini tidak ada permasalahan yang cukup penting, karena itu banyak ayat yang turun didalam berbagai surah berkenaan dengan satu peristiwa.
Seperti Al-Qur’an yang diturunkan untuk memberikan jalan petunjuk dan untuk memperkuat iman umat muslim. Asababun nuul disini juga memiliki petran penting untuk semakin menguatkan keyakinan umat muslim tentang ayat Al-Qur’an yang diturunkan oleh Allah untuk umatnya. Sehingga Ilmu Asbabun Nuzul itu sangat diperlukan untuk mengetahui keontetikan suatu ayat yang memiliki Asbabun nuzul. Hal ini dilakukan untuk menghindari kecacatan dalam penerjemahan suatu ayat Al-quran.
B. Rumusan Masalah
1. Apa Asbabun Nuzul itu?
2. Bagaimana cara mengetahui Asbabun nuzul?
3. Faedah-feadah apa sajakah yang didapat dari mempelajari Asababun Nuzul?

BAB II
PEMBAHASAN

A. Pengertian Asbabun Nuzul
Asbabun Nuzul dapat didefinisikan sebagai ilmu yang mengkaji atau membahas tentang sebab-sebab diturunkanya Al-Qur’an secara lebih rinci dan jelas. Asababun nuzul berfungsi mencari penerangan mengenai suatu status hukum dan sebab diturunkannya suatu ayat atau hadis, pada masa hal atau kejadian itu terjadi. Hal ini mencakup peristiwa maupun pertanyaan. Asbabun muzul membahas kasus-kasus yang menjadi sebab turunya beberapa ayat Al-qur’an, macam-macamnya, redaksi-redaksinya, tarjih riwayat-riwayatnya, dan faedah dalam mempelajarinya. Seadangkan definisi asbabun nuzul yang lainnya adalah sebagai berikut:
1. Asbabun nuzul adalah riwayatn atau hadis yang menjelaskan berbagai sebab diturunkanya ayat.
2. Apabila terjadi suatu kasus atau kejadian kemudian turun satu atau beberapa ayat yang berhubungan dengan kasus, itulah yang disebut asbabun nuzul.
3. Kadang-kadang ada suatu pertanyaan yang dilontarkan kepada Nabi SAW dengan maksud meminta ketegasan tentang hukum syara’ atau mohon kejelasan secara terperinci tentang urusan agama, itu juga disebut asbabun nuzul.
4. Menurut Az-Zarqani
Didefinisikan bahwa Asbabun Nuzul merupakan sesuatu yang khusus untuk menggambarkan sesuatu yang terjadi yang berhubungan dengan turunnya ayat Al Quran yang berfungsi sebagai penjelas hukum pada saat peristiwa terjadi.
5. Menurut Ash-Shabuni
Didefinisikan bahwa Asbabun Nuzul sebagai peristiwa yang menyebabkan turunnya satu atau beberapa ayat mulia yang berhubungan dengan peristiwa dan kejadian tersebut, baik berupa pertanyaan yang diajukan kepada Nabi atau kejadian yang berkaitan dengan urusan agama.
6. Menurut Shubhi Shahih
Dapat didefiniskan bahwa Asbabun Nuzul adalah sesuatu yang menjadi sebab turunnya satu atau beberapa ayat Al Quran yang menyiratkan peristiwa yang terjadi sebagai respon cepatnya. Atau sebagai penjelas hukum-hukum di saat peristiwa itu terjadi.
7. Menurut Mana’ Al-Qthathan
Jadi Asbabun Nuzul merupakan peristiwa-peristiwa yang menyebabkan turunnya Al Quran yang berkenaan dengannya waktu peristiwa itu terjadi, baik berupa satu kejadian atau berupa pertanyaan yang di ajukan kepada nabi.
Jika kita lihat dari beberapa pengertian di atas maka terdapat perbedaan pendapat di antara satu dengan yang lainnya, walaupun redaksi yang digunakan untuk mendefinisikan Asbabun Nuzul Al Quran berbeda, semuanya menyimpulkan hal yang sama yakni Asbabun Nuzul adalah suatu kejadian atau peristiwa yang melatar belakangi turunnya ayat Al Quran. Asbabun Nuzul juga dapat dikatakan sebagai rentetan bahan-bahan sejarah yang dapat dipakai untuk memberikan keterangan-keterangan terhadap ayat-ayat Al Quran.
Sehingga kita dapat melihat posisi asbabun nuzul bagi para sahabat dan para ulama sangatlah penting, karena asbabun nuzul disini berperan sebagai salah satu komponen untuk menfsirkan Al-Qur’an. Sedangkan yang mejadi pedoman dasar para ulama dalam mengetahui asbabun nuzul adalah riwayat sahih yang berasal dari Rasullah SAW atau dari sahabat. Namun untuk pendapat dari sahabat itu harus jelas sehingga hal itu bukan hanya pendapat saja (ra’y) melainkan hal itu memiliki hukum yang marfu’ (disandarkan pada Rasulullah).
Sehingga banyak sekali ulama salaf yang tidak berani menafsirkan asbabun nuzul itu secara sembarangan atau tanpa ilmu yang jelas karena sebuah asababun nuzul itu harus memiliki urutan perawi yang jelas dan muatan yang benar (tidak mengandung sifat cacat dalam isinya). Sehingga muncul lah pihak atau para ahli yang mengkhususkan dirinya untuk membahasa bidang ini, yang terkenal diataranya ialah sebagai berikut:
1. Ali bin Madini, Guru Bukhari.
2. Abul Hasan Ali al-Wahidi (427 H) dalam kitabnya Asbabun Nuzul.
3. Burhanuddin al-Jabari (732 H) yang meringkah kitab al-Wahidi dengan menghilangkat isnad-isnadnya tanpa menambahkan sesuatu.
4. Sayaikhul Islam Ibn Hajar al-Atsqolani (852 H) yang mengarang suatu kitab mengenai Asbabun Nuzul.
5. Jalaluddin As-Suyul (911 H) yang menyatakan tentang dirinya: “Dalam hal ini, aku telah mengarang satu kitab lengkap, singkat, dan sangat baik serta dalam bidang ilmu ini belum ada satu kitab pun menyamainya. Kitab ini aku namakan Lubabul Manqul fi Asbabin Nuzul.

B. Sebab diturunkanya Asbabun Nuzul
Mengetahui sebab-sebab diturunkannya sebuah ayat sangatlah penting. Karena bagi mujtahid hal ini termasuk syarat dalam menafsirkan Al-Quran. Sedangkan menurut para ulama, sebuah ayat diturunkan karena dau hal.
Pertatama, merespon sebuah peristiwa,maka akan turunlah ayat Al-Qur’an mengenai peristiwa tersebuat. misalnya turunlah surah al-Lahab sebagai bantahan terhadap Abu Lahab yang mengejek Rasulullah saw dengan ungkapan keji.
“Binasalah kedua tangan Abu Lahab dan sesungguhnya dia akan binasa. Tidaklah berfaedah kepadanya harta bendanya dan apa yang ia usahakan. Kelak dia akan masuk ke dalam api yang bergejolak. Dan (begitu pula) istrinya, pembawa kayu bakar . Yang di lehernya ada tali dari sabut”
Kedua, menjawab suatu permasalahan yang belum atau sulit diputuskan. Bila Rasullah saw ditanya tentang sesuatu hal maka turunlah ayat Al-Qur’anya menerangkan hukumnya. Contoh hal ini seperti ketika khaulah binti Sa’labah dikenakan Zihar oleh suaminya Aus bin Sahit lalu ia dating kepada Rasulullah saw mengadukan hal itu.
Aisyah berkata: “ Maha suci Allah yang maha medengar meliputi segalanya aku medengar ucapan Khaulah binti Sa’labah itu, sekalipun tidak seluruhnya, ia mengadukan suaminya keapda Rasulullah saw, katanya: Rasulullah saw suamiku telah menghabiskan masa mudaku dan sudah beberapa kali aku mengadu karenanya, sekarang setelah aku menjadi tua, dan tidak beranak lagi ia mejatuhkan ziharnya lagi kepadaku! Ya Allah sesungguhnya aku mengadu kepada Mu.
Aisyah berkata: “ Tiba-tiba jibril turun membawa ayat-ayat ini: Sesungguhnya Allah telah mendengar perkataan perempuan yang mengadu kepadamu tentang suaminya ( yakni aus bin samit)”.
Tidak semua ayat qur’an diturunkan karena adanya timbul suatu peristiwa dan kejadian yang mendahuluinya, atau karena suatu pertanyaan. Tetapi ada diantaranya ayat Al-Qur’an diturunkan sebagai permulaan, tanpa sebab mengenai akidah iman, kewajiban Islam dan syariaat Allah dalam kehidupan pribadi social. Contoh lainya adalah misalnya ayat yang diturunkan sehubungan dengan masalah Khamar.
“Sesungguhnya khmar, berjudi, berkorban untuk berhala, mengundi nasib dengan panah, adalah perbuatan keji termasuk perbuatan setan. Maka jauhilah perbuatan-perbuatan itu agar kamu mendapat keberuntungan ”
Adapun sebab kenapa asbabun nuzul diturunkan secara bertahap karena “Dan orang-orang kafir itu berkata: Mengapa Al-Quran tidak diturunkan kepadanya secara serempak. Demikian itu Kami lakukan untuk memantapkan hatimu.”
Dapat kita lihat dari kalimat “pemantapan hati” dalam ayat ini dapat mengindikasikan sebuah kondisi “penerimaan pertama” ikut dipertimbangkan sebab proses komunikasi wahyu amat sulit baginya, karena pada saat itu budayanya berupa budaya lisan yang dimana posisi umat pada masa itru cenderung menghafal sehingga akan sulit jika pada masa itu ayat diturunkan secara serempak atau sekaligus. Hal ini dikarena background umat pada masa itu cenderung kental dengan kebudayaan lisan. Sehingga dalam proses penerimaan disini tidak hanya menyangkut factor pribadi saja namun juga mempertimbangkan situasi umum, yang dimana penerima pertama memiliki kedudukan sejajar dengan masyarakat yang menjadi sasaran teks. Sehingga dalam proses pemahaman dan penghafalan teks tersebut akan dapat di fahami dan diinterprestasikan dengan mudah dan mengena.
“ Sebab, apabila wahyu muncul dalam setiap peristiwa, ini akan lebih memantapkan hati dan lebih memberikan perhatian terhadap rasul. Dan, ini mengharuskan malaikat sering turun kepadanya dan memperbaruhi pertemuan denganya dengan membawa misi dari Yang Mahamulia. Dari sini, muncullah kegembiraan yang tidak dapat diungkapkan dengan kata-kata”
Mereka juga menyadari bahwa sebuah tradisi lisan yang berkembang dalam kebudayaan mewajibkan Al-Qur’an diturunkan secara bertahap, meskipun dibatasi dalam bingkai kepribadian Rasullah saja. Sehingga dapat kita pahami bahwa penurunan Al-quran itu secera bertahap disini memunculkan sebuah pengidentifikasian bahwa ada hubungan antara teks dengan realitas yang ada.
Asbabun Nuzul dengan hadist mursal, yaitu hadist yang gugur dari sanadnya seoarng sahabat dan mata rantai periwayatnya hanya sampai kepada seorang tabi’in, maka riwayat ini tidak diterima kecuali sanadnya shahih dan mengambil tafsirnya dari para sahabat, seperti mujahid, hikmah dan said bin jubair. para ulama menetapkan bahwa tidak ada jalan untuk mengetahui asbabun nuzul kecuali melalui riwayat yang shahih. Mereka tidak dapat menerima hasil nalar dan ijtihad dalam masalah ini, namun tampaknya pandangan mereka tidak selamanya berlaku secara mutlak, tidak jarang pandangan terhadap riwayat-riwayat asbabun nuzul bagi ayat tertentu berbeda-beda yang kadang-kadang memerlukan Tarjih ( mengambil riwayat yang lebih kuat ) untuk melakukan tarjih diperlukan analisis dan ijtihad.
C. Cara Menentukan Asbabun Nuzul
Asbabun nuzul disini memiliki peran yang sangat penting dalam penafsiran atau pengukapan makna teks dalam Al-Qur’an, namun yang menjadi persoalannya adalah dalam meyakinkan sebab-sebab sejumblah teks Al-Qur’an itu diturunkan sangat tidak mudah. Kerna dalam menentukan sebuah asbabun nuzul tidak hanya bertolak pada pandangan akan (rasio), melaikan berdasarkan riwayat yang sahih dan didengarkan langsung dari orang-orang yang mengetahui turunya Al-Qur’an atau dari orang-orang yang benar-benar memahami sabaun nuzul, yang dimana para sumber ini benar-benar meneliti dengan cermat baik dari kalangan sahabat, tabi’in atau yang lainnya dengan cara memperoleh ilmunya dari ulama-ulama yang benar-benar terpercaya.
a. Cara mengetahui Asbabun Nuzul berupa riwayat yang sahih adalah:
1. Apabila perawi sendii menyatakan lafal sebab secara tegas. Dalam hal ini adalah nash yang nyata, seperti kata-kata perawi sebab turunya ayat begini…”
2. Bila perawi menyatakan riwayatnya dengan memasukan huruf “Fa Ta’qibiyah” pada kata “Nazala” seperti kata-kata perawi.
b. Sedangkan kriteria cara mengetahi Asababun Nuzul menurut para ulama melalui riwayat adalah:
1. Apabila ada dua periwayat yang berbeda, dan salah satunya lebih sahih dari lainnya maka yang dipegang adalah riwayat yang lebih sahih.
2. Apabila sanad dari dua riwayat tersebut shahihnya maka salah satunya diutamakan apabila perawinya menyaksikan peristiwa atau karena ada pertimbangan-pertimbangan semacamnya. Contoh yang diketengahkan para ulama untuk tipe ini adalah perbedaan riwayat Ibnu Mas’ud dengan riwayat Ibnu Abbas mengenai sebab turunya firman Allah:
“Dan mereka akan bertanya kepadamu tentang roh. Katakanlah, roh itu termasuk masalah Tuhanku, ilmu yang diberikan kepada kalian hanyalah sedikit.” Jadi dapat disimpulkan yang shahih bukanlah yang diriwayatkan oleh Ibnu Mas’ud. Meskipun ia menurunkan riwayatnya, menyaksikan turunnya ayat. Hal inilah yang menyebabkan munculnya asumsi adanya ayat turun dua kali, sekali di Makah dan sekalih di Madinah.
3. Apabila dua riwayat tersebut sulit di tarjih maka pemecahanya dalah diasumsikan ayat turun berulang-ulang setelah ada dua sebab atau sebab-sebab yang disebutkan. Asumsi ini menyebabkan kita harus membicarakan masalah tentang satu ayat turun berulang-ulang karena sebab yang banyak, dan juga mengharuskan kita membicarakan sisi lain, yaitu beberapa ayat turun dengan satu sebab.
Sedangkan dapat kita ketahui bahwa macam Asbabun Nuzul itu ada dua kelompok. Kelompok yang pertama Ta’addud al-Asbab wa al-Nazil Wahid , yang kedua Ta’uddud al-Nazil wa al-Sabab Wahid . Suatu ayat atau sekelompok ayat yang turun disebut Ta’addud Al-Nazil bila inti persoalan yang terkandung dalam ayat yang turun sehubungan dengan sebab tertentu lebih dari satu persoalan. Jika ditemukan dua riwayat atau lebih tentang sebab turun ayat dan masing-masing menyebutkan suatu sebab yang jelas dan berbeda dari yang disebutkan lawannya, maka kedua riwayat ini diteliti dan dianalisis.
Kemungkinan munculnya permasalahan empat bentuk. Pertama salah satu dari keduanya sahih dan lainnya tidak. Kedua, keduanya sahih, akan tetapi salah satunya mempunyai penguat (murajjih) dan lainnya tidak. Ketiga, keduanya sahih dan keduanya sama-sama tidak mempunyai penguat (murajjih). Akan tetapi, keduanya dapat diambil sekaligus. Bentuk keempat, keduanya sahih, tidak mempunyai penguat (murajjih), dan tidak mungkin mengambil keduanya sekaligus.
Kita sepakat bahwa Al Quran diturunkan secara berangsur-angsur, artinya tidak diturunkan sekaligus dalam bentuk kitab yang utuh melainkan diturunkan sebagian-sebagian. Untuk mengetahui kapan ayat-ayat Al Quran diturunkan kita harus merujuk kepada Asbabun Nuzulnya. Tapi sayangnya tidak semua ayat Al Quran terdapat asbabun nuzul yang shahih menjelaskan sebab turunnya. Berdasarkan hal ini maka ayat-ayat dalam al Quran dibagi menjadi
1. Ayat Al Quran yang memiliki Asbabun Nuzul atau sebab turunnya. Maksudnya ayat ini turun berkaitan dengan peristiwa atau tujuan tertentu. Hal ini diketahui dengan hadis asbabun nuzul yang shahih.
2. Ayat Al Quran yang tidak memiliki Asbabun Nuzul atau sebab turunnya karena memang tidak ada asbabun nuzul yang shahih yang menjelaskan sebab turunnya
Lalu apa kaitannya dengan pembahasan ini?. Ternyata terdapat asbabun nuzul yang shahih yang menjelaskan turunnya penggalan terakhir surah Al Ahzab 33 yang lebih dikenal dengan sebutan Ayat Tathhir(ayat penyucian) yaitu penggalan
Innamaa Yuriidullaahu Liyudzhiba ’Ankumurrijsa Ahlalbayti Wayuthahhirakum Tathhiiraa.
Yang arti atau terjemahannya adalah
Sesungguhnya Allah bermaksud hendak menghilangkan dosa dari kamu, wahai Ahlul Bait dan mensucikanmu sesuci-sucinya.
Ternyata banyak Hadis-hadis shahih dan jelas yang menyatakan bahwa ayat Innamaa Yuriidullaahu Liyudzhiba ’Ankumurrijsa Ahlalbayti Wayuthahhirakum Tathhiiraa.(QS Al Ahzab 33) turun sendiri terpisah dari ayat sebelum dan sesudahnya. Artinya ayat tersebut tidak terkait dengan ayat sebelum dan sesudahnya yang ditujukan untuk istri-istri Nabi SAW. Ayat tersebut justru ditujukan untuk Pribadi-pribadi yang lain dan bukan istri-istri Nabi SAW. Mungkin ada yang akan berpendapat bahwa yang seperti ini sama halnya dengan Mutilasi ayat, hal ini jelas tidak benar karena ayat yang dimaksud memang ditujukan untuk pribadi tertentu sesuai dengan asbabun nuzulnya.
Sebenarnya Ada dua cara untuk mengetahui siapa yang dituju oleh suatu Ayat dalam Al Quran.
• Cara yang pertama adalah dengan melihat ayat sebelum dan ayat sesudah dari ayat yang dimaksud, memahaminya secara keseluruhan dan baru kemudian menarik kesimpulan.
• Cara kedua adalah dengan melihat Asbabun Nuzul dari Ayat tersebut yang terdapat dalam hadis yang shahih tentang turunnya ayat tersebut.
Cara pertama yaitu dengan melihat urutan ayat, jelas memiliki syarat bahwa ayat-ayat tersebut diturunkan secara bersamaan atau diturunkan berkaitan dengan individu-individu yang sama. Dan untuk mengetahui hal ini jelas dengan melihat Asbabun Nuzul ayat tersebut. Jadi sebenarnya baik cara pertama atau kedua sama-sama memerlukan asbabun nuzul ayat tersebut. Seandainya terdapat dalil yang shahih dari asbabun nuzul suatu ayat tentang siapa yang dituju dalam ayat tersebut maka hal ini jelas lebih diutamakan ketimbang melihat urutan ayat baik sebelum maupun sesudahnya. Alasannya adalah ayat-ayat Al Quran tidaklah diturunkan secara bersamaan melainkan diturunkan berangsur-angsur. Oleh karenanya dalil shahih dari Asbabun Nuzul jelas lebih tepat menunjukkan siapa yang dituju dalam ayat tersebut.
Berbeda halnya apabila tidak ditemukan dalil shahih yang menjelaskan Asbabun Nuzul ayat tersebut. Maka dalam hal ini jelas lebih tepat dengan melihat urutan ayat baik sebelum maupun sesudahnya untuk menangkap maksud kepada siapa ayat tersebut ditujukan.Jadi ini bukan mutilasi ayat tapi memang ayatnya turun sendiri terpisah dari ayat sebelum maupun sesudahnya dan ditujukan untuk pribadi-pribadi tertentu

D. Beberapa faedah mengetahui Asbabun Nuzul
Berikut ini adalah manfaat mengetahui asbabun nuzul Al-Qur’an
1. Menjelaskan hikmah ata syariat Islam dan mengetahui tujuan diberlakukannya syari’at bagi umat islam.
2. Mengetahui wilayah cakupan suatu hukum kendati ayat tersebut diturunkan dalam bentuk yang umum. Hal ini untuk menjawab persoalan-persoalan khilafiah (perbedaan pendapat) yang tidak mungkin tidak terjadi ditegah kehidupan masyarakat.
3. Jika structur lafaz pada ayat yang diturunkan bersifat umum tapi memiliki pengkhususan hukum, maka dengan mengetahui asbabun nuzul-nya kita akan tahu bahwa ayat seperti itu tidak boleh dijadikan dasar untuk ijtihad.
4. Memudahkan pemahamam terhadap makana yang terkandung dalam Al-Qur’an.
5. Memberikan pengetahuan konteks turunya ayat.
Adapun faedah dari ilmu Asbabun Nuzul dapat disimpulkan sebagai berikut:
1. Mengetahui bentuk hikmah rahasia yang terkandung dalam hukum suatu ayat.
2. Menentukan hokum dengan sebab menurut orang yang berpendapat bahwa suatu ibarat dinyatakan berdasarkan khususnya sebab.
3. Menghidarkan prasangka bahwaarti hasr dalam suatu ayat yang zahirnya hasr.
4. Mengetahui orang atau kelompok yang menjadi kasus turunya ayat serta memberikan ketegasan bila terdapat keragu-raguan.
5. Dan lain-lain yang ada hubunganya dengan faedah ilmu Asbabun Nuzul.

BAB III
KESIMPULAN

Dari urain dan penjelasan diatas dapat kita tarik sesimpulan sebagai berikut:
a. Asbabun Nuzul memiliki pengetian, Asbabun Nuzul adalah suatu kejadian atau peristiwa yang melatar belakangi turunnya ayat Al Quran. Asbabun Nuzul juga dapat dikatakan sebagai rentetan bahan-bahan sejarah yang dapat dipakai untuk memberikan keterangan-keterangan terhadap ayat-ayat Al Quran.
b. Yang mendasari diturunkannya Asbabun Nuzul ada dual yaitu Pertatama, merespon sebuah peristiwa,maka akan turunlah ayat Al-Qur’an mengenai peristiwa tersebuat. Kedua, menjawab suatu permasalahan yang belum atau sulit diputuskan. Bila Rasullah saw ditanya tentang sesuatu hal maka turunlah ayat Al-Qur’anya menerangkan hukumnya.
c. Adapun cara untuk mengetahui Asbabun Nuzul adalah sebagai berikut:
1. Cara mengetahui Asbabun Nuzul berupa riwayat yang sahih adalah:
a. Apabila perawi sendii menyatakan lafal sebab secara tegas. Dalam hal ini adalah nash yang nyata, seperti kata-kata perawi sebab turunya ayat begini…”
b. Bila perawi menyatakan riwayatnya dengan memasukan huruf “Fa Ta’qibiyah” pada kata “Nazala” seperti kata-kata perawi.
2. Sedangkan kriteria cara mengetahi Asababun Nuzul menurut para ulama melalui riwayat adalah:
a. Apabila ada dua periwayat yang berbeda, dan salah satunya lebih sahih dari lainnya maka yang dipegang adalah riwayat yang lebih sahih.
b. Apabila sanad dari dua riwayat tersebut shahihnya maka salah satunya diutamakan apabila perawinya menyaksikan peristiwa atau karena ada pertimbangan-pertimbangan semacamnya. Contoh yang diketengahkan para ulama untuk tipe ini adalah perbedaan riwayat Ibnu Mas’ud dengan riwayat Ibnu Abbas mengenai sebab turunya firman Allah:
“Dan mereka akan bertanya kepadamu tentang roh. Katakanlah, roh itu termasuk masalah Tuhanku, ilmu yang diberikan kepada kalian hanyalah sedikit.” Jadi dapat disimpulkan yang shahih bukanlah yang diriwayatkan oleh Ibnu Mas’ud. Meskipun ia menurunkan riwayatnya, menyaksikan turunnya ayat. Hal inilah yang menyebabkan munculnya asumsi adanya ayat turun dua kali, sekali di Makah dan sekalih di Madinah.
c. Apabila dua riwayat tersebut sulit di tarjih maka pemecahanya dalah diasumsikan ayat turun berulang-ulang setelah ada dua sebab atau sebab-sebab yang disebutkan. Asumsi ini menyebabkan kita harus membicarakan masalah tentang satu ayat turun berulang-ulang karena sebab yang banyak, dan juga mengharuskan kita membicarakan sisi lain, yaitu beberapa ayat turun dengan satu sebab.
d. Ada pun macam dari asbabun nuzul itu ada dua macam yaitu:
1. Ta’addud al-Asbab wa al-Nazil Wahid
2. Ta’uddud al-Nazil wa al-Sabab Wahid
e. Berikut ini adalah manfaat mengetahui asbabun nuzul Al-Qur’an
1. Menjelaskan hikmah ata syariat Islam dan mengetahui tujuan diberlakukannya syari’at bagi umat islam.
2. Mengetahui wilayah cakupan suatu hukum kendati ayat tersebut diturunkan dalam bentuk yang umum. Hal ini untuk menjawab persoalan-persoalan khilafiah (perbedaan pendapat) yang tidak mungkin tidak terjadi ditegah kehidupan masyarakat.
3. Jika structur lafaz pada ayat yang diturunkan bersifat umum tapi memiliki pengkhususan hukum, maka dengan mengetahui asbabun nuzul-nya kita akan tahu bahwa ayat seperti itu tidak boleh dijadikan dasar untuk ijtihad.
4. Memudahkan pemahamam terhadap makana yang terkandung dalam Al-Qur’an.
5. Memberikan pengetahuan konteks turunya ayat.
Adapun faedah dari ilmu Asbabun Nuzul dapat disimpulkan sebagai berikut:
1. Mengetahui bentuk hikmah rahasia yang terkandung dalam hukum suatu ayat.
2. Menentukan hokum dengan sebab menurut orang yang berpendapat bahwa suatu ibarat dinyatakan berdasarkan khususnya sebab.
3. Menghidarkan prasangka bahwaarti hasr dalam suatu ayat yang zahirnya hasr.
4. Mengetahui orang atau kelompok yang menjadi kasus turunya ayat serta memberikan ketegasan bila terdapat keragu-raguan.
5. Dan lain-lain yang ada hubunganya dengan faedah ilmu Asbabun Nuzul. Untuk mengetahui contoh-contoh faedah secara lengkap dan jelas dapat dilihat dibuku “Studi Ilmu AL-Aqur’an, karya Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ali Ash-Shaabuuniy”, “ Mahabits Fi Ulumil Qur’an, karya Syeikh Manna’ul Qathan”, atau dari sumber-sumber buku yang lainnya.
Dari kesimpulan diatas dapat kita ketahui bahwa Asbabun Nuzul merupakan dalah satu elemen terpenting dalam menefsirkan ayat-ayat.

BAB IV
DAFRTAR PUSTAKA

1. Amrullah, Fahmi. Ilmu AL-Qur’an untuk Pemula. Jakarta: CV Aryha Rivera.
2. Ali Ash-Shaabuuniy Mohammad. 1991. Studi Ilmu Al-Quran. Damaskus: Maktabah Al-Aghazali.
3. Aly Ash Shabuny, Mohammad. 1984. Pengantar Study Al-Qur’an (AT-TIBYAN). Beirut-Libanon:Darul Irsyad
4. Hamid Abu Zaid, Nasr. 1993. Tekstualitas Al-Quran. Yogyakarta: Lkis
5. Syeikh Manna’ul Qathan. 2008. Mahabits Fi Ulumil Qur’an. Surakarta: Pesantren mahasiswa Arroyah Surakarta.
6. http://www.al-shia.org/html/id/page.php?id=1029&page=2 diakses pada tanggal 25 September pukul 20.00 wib
7. http://www.sarjanaku.com/2009/12/makalah-asbabun-nuzul.html diakses pada tanggal 25 September pukul 20.00 wib
8. http://education.poztmo.com/2011/02/definisi-asbabun-nuzul-al-quran.html diakses pada tanggal 25 September pukul 20.00 wib
9. http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asbabun_Nuzul diakses pada tanggal 25 September pukul 20.00 wib
10. http://almanaar.wordpress.com/2007/12/10/manfaat-mengetahui-asbabun-nuzul diakses pada tanggal 25 September pukul 20.00 wib

Types of writting


From Academic Enrichment Services Academic Skills Unit

 

Other Writing Tasks

Studying at university generally requires you to submit a variety of written texts. In addition to research essays , you may be required to produce:

* reports (e.g. lab, technical, design reports),
* reflective writing pieces (e.g. reflective essays, journals, and blogs), and
* annotated bibliographies.

At the post-graduate level, you may be required to additionally write:

* literature reviews,
* theses, and
* abstracts.

If you are studying breadth subjects, the writing requirements of one faculty or discipline may differ significantly from those you are used to . Therefore, it is always important to check with your lecturers and tutors and to consult your faculty style guide.
Reports

Familiarity with different types of reports such as laboratory, progress, site, feasibility, and proposal reports is important. Reports tend to be divided into three main parts:

* Preliminary information (e.g. title page, abstract, table of contents, list of illustrations)
* The body of the report
* Supplementary information (e.g. references, appendices)

The body is the most important part. It usually contains the following sections:

* Introduction
* Methods
* Results
* Discussion
* Conclusion (which may include recommendations for action).

IMRAD

Source: Swales, J and C. Feak (2000) English in Today’s Research World: a Writing Guide, Michigan: Ann Arbor

When writing a report, it is important you use a style which is clear, objective, accurate, and brief. (Please see the Language section of the Academic Skills Unit website for more information).

Since reports can vary in length, detail, and content, check with your lecturer/tutor/department on the standard sections and style required before submitting your work.

Relevant Academic Skills Unit Resources

Undergraduate Research Reports (68KB | PDF)
Writing Science Lab Reports (62KB | PDF)
Site Visit Reports for Engineers (63KB | PDF)
Writing Engineering Design Reports (62KB | PDF)
Useful Links

This page from the University of New South Wales Learning Centre outlines information on reports and details steps for getting started.

This page from the University of South Australia contains information on different types of reports and processes for writing analytical reports.

This page from the University of Canberra provides further information on reports and on the difference between essays and reports.

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Literature Reviews

A literature review is an examination of the scholarly work that has been carried out on a particular topic. This is an essential part of writing research texts (e.g. a thesis) since a literature review contextualises your research by:

* examining the nature of the research topic/question under investigation,
* comprehensively identifying and evaluating previous work dealing with the topic,
* determining and assessing the various methodologies used for investigating the topic, and
* identifying ‘the gap’ in the literature that your research is aiming to ‘fill’.

As such, an effective literature review

* describes, analyses, and synthesises material from a range of sources rather than merely cataloguing information,
* has a clear focus and direction, and
* should be presented in a logical, clear and well-organised manner and in an academic writing style.

Where you locate a literature review within your text depends on your aims and the overall structure of your document. A literature review may appear:

* as a distinct section in your document,
* divided across sections or chapters, or
* as an integrated part of an introduction/analysis/discussion section.

How you organise a literature review is similarly dependent on your aims and the type of material or topic(s) researched. You may structure your literature review in a number of ways including:

* in chronological order,
* by order of relevance,
* by themes or topics,
* using a funnel structure (i.e. moving from general to specific issues), and
* comparing and contrasting.

As your literature review is based both on your research and on your interpretation of this information, it is important to acknowledge which ideas are yours and which were found in your research. It is equally important to cite sources appropriately. For more information, please visit the Academic Skills Unit section on Documenting your References.
Relevant Academic Skills Unit Resources

Reviewing the literature (61KB | PDF)
Managing Graduate Study (pp 10-15) (3781KB | PDF)
Effective Reading (65KB | PDF)
Critical Reading (66KB | PDF)
Useful Links

The online course Postgraduate Essentials targets University of Melbourne commencing PhD students and includes a section on writing literature reviews.

The online resource CourseWorks also provides postgraduate coursework students a section on writing literature reviews. [URL:

This page from The University of Melbourne Library website has information on conducting a literature review.

This site from Monash University also provides more detailed information on writing literature reviews.
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Theses

A thesis is a document which reports on research conducted in a particular field of enquiry.

All theses:

* address a research question which has not been previously investigated and which defines the general aim(s) of the thesis.
* contextualise the research question by reviewing the scholarly literature written on the topic. (See Literature Reviews above).
* describe the procedures that were carried out in order to address the research question. Depending on the nature of the research you are conducting, this could be your methodology, methods, or theoretical framework.
* describe the findings obtained. In empirical theses, this section is usually referred to as the Results. In theoretical theses, this usually represents the analysis proposed by the author.
* discuss how these findings advance previous knowledge on the topic.
* acknowledge limitations of the research and suggest areas for further progress in the field.

According to Meloy (1994), there are four main types of thesis structures, as detailed in the table below.
The Traditional: Simple thesis follows the IMRAD structure typical of traditional empirical research:

* Introduction
* Literature review
* Materials and methods
* Results
* Discussion
* Conclusion.

The Topic-based thesis is especially common in theoretical research (e.g. in the humanities) and is usually composed of the following sections:

* Introduction
* Topic 1
* Topic 2
* Topic 3 etc
* Conclusions.

TheTraditional: Complex thesis usually observes the following structure:

* Introduction

* Background to the study and literature review
* (Background theory and/or methods)
* A series of studies, each usually forming a chapter and organised according to the IMRADs structure.
* Discussion
* Conclusion.

The Compilation of Research Articles thesis is similar to the traditional complex thesis but uses research articles as studies.

* Introduction
* Background to the study and literature review
* (Background theory and/or methods)
* A series of research articles, each usually forming a chapter and organised according to the IMRADs structure.
* Discussion
* Conclusion.

Adapted from Melroy, J.M. (1994). Writing the Qualitative Dissertation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum: 96-99.

You need to identify the structure that best suits the purpose of your thesis and familiarise yourself with recent discipline-specific theses. University of Melbourne theses:

* are held in the University (PhD) and departmental libraries, and
* may also be available via the University of Melbourne ePrints Repository (UMER) on the library website or the Australian Digital Thesis Project.

Relevant Academic Skills Unit Resources

Managing Postgraduate Study (3781KB | PDF)
Developing Originality (75KB | PDF)
Supervision (70KB | PDF)
Writer’s block (850KB | PDF)
Useful Links

The online course Postgraduate Essentials is a 12-week course for commencing PhD students.

This page from the University of Melbourne ePrints Repository (UMER) contains a large selection of published PhDs which you can access electronically.

This page from The University of Melbourne Graduate Student Association (GSA) provides you with a thesis writing guide. [URL:

This page from Monash University provides learning support for higher degree research students.
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Reflective Writing, Journals, and Blogs

Reflective writing is usually presented in a more informal or personal style than traditional academic writing but still often requires reference to academic texts.

Requirements for reflective writing tasks will very across subjects and faculties and may take the form of regular journal entries, blogs, or class notebooks. Reflective writing may even form part of a larger essay or report.

A reflective writing task may require you to do any of the following:

* link the material with your own personal views or experiences,
* ask questions, raise doubts and pose problems,
* consider alternative viewpoints,
* interpret events, and/or
* offer solutions.

The reflective thinking process will therefore need to be demonstrated in your writing.

Some subjects ask you to maintain a weblog or blog. When you write a blog, you should use a range of online functions like internal links between different blogs and external links to other web content. Furthermore, you are usually required to blog regularly – perhaps once a week – and blogs are frequently updated and invite comment from other readers. Blogging is a communal activity so you must always be respectful towards fellow bloggers.
Relevant Academic Skills Unit Resources

Reflective Practice in Education (64KB | PDF)
Useful Links

This page from The University of New South Wales provides you with further information on reflective writing.

This page from Monash University provides you with reflective writing practice in the medical and health sciences.

This page from the University of Technology in Sydney provides you with specific information on reflective journal writing.
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Annotated Bibliography

An annotated bibliography is a bibliographic list of sources on a certain topic which contains a brief summary of the source content. Similar to a ‘bibliography’, ‘works cited’, or ‘reference list’, it provides the bibliographic details of the sources in alphabetical order.

In addition, each source has an annotation, i.e. a brief summary of the content and often a critical evaluation. The purpose of an annotated bibliography can be to:

* review the literature on a certain topic,
* demonstrate how widely, thoroughly and critically you have read,
* point out relevant sources on the topic,
* demonstrate a gap in the literature on the topic, and/or
* form a starting point for a research project.

When asked to write an annotated bibliography:

* be clear about the topic,
* search for relevant sources,
* read critically and take notes,
* cite the sources according to the required referencing style,
* know whether you are expected to write just descriptive or analytical/ evaluative annotations, and
* write a brief annotation (usually not more than 150 words) for each source.

Useful Links

Useful links regarding annotated bibliographies include:

Charles Sturt University

Queensland University of Technology

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Abstracts

For some types of academic writing such as theses, journal articles, conference papers, and reports, you are required to include an abstract (sometimes also called an ‘executive summary’).

An abstract is a concise, self-contained summary of a longer piece of writing. If it is included in the text, it appears at the beginning, before the introduction and main body.

Effective abstracts:

* often consist of just one paragraph,
* state the problem or purpose of the main paper,
* use keywords and information found in the text,
* are clear, coherent, and well structured, and
* usually don’t contain references.

Depending on academic discipline, abstracts will contain different information. Check with your department/lecturer/tutor as to the length and the type of information you need to include.

Abstracts are usually written once the main paper is completed. They help you reflect on your work and how the different parts of your text fit together.
Useful Links

This page from the University of South Australia provides you with further information on abstracts, their purpose, conventions, and types.

This page from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (USA) discusses different types of abstracts and strategies for effective abstract writing.

Refrence of http://www.services.unimelb.edu.au/asu/writing/types/index.html