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Preposition


Structure

Preposition

Lecturer: Maslikhatun Umami

Directed by:

 

Febri Ari Sandi                      (11310010)

ENGLISH AND EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

STATE ISLAMIC STUDIES INSTITUTE (STAIN)

SALATIGA

2011/2012

Preposition

   Meaning

A preposition describes a relationship between Noun (kt.benda), pronouns (kt.ganti), and other words in sentence it also indicates location and time in the sentence.

The examples of preposition are above, about, across, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, by, down, during, except, for, from, in. inside, into, like, of, off, on, since, to, toward, through, under, until, up, with, within, and etc.

   Position of Preposition

Preposition typically comes before a noun, a pronoun, and gerund. A preposition followed by a determiner and an adjective or two, followed by a pronoun or noun (called the object of the preposition).

   Kind of Preposition

a)    Based on its form

1)      Simple Preposition (kt.dpn Tunggal)

The examples of simple preposition are after, at, by, for, from, of, over, on, in, thought, to, off, till, under, up, with, etc.

Simple Prepositions are single word prepositions. These are all showed above

For example: The book is on the table

2)      Double Preposition (kt.dpn Ganda)

Preposition ganda dipakai bilamana preposisi tunggal tidak cukup untuk menyatakan pengertian.

The examples of double preposition are into, onto, from under, from among, from off, from within, over against, etc.

3)      Compound Preposition (kt.dpn Majemuk)

Preposition ini di bentuk dari noun/adjective/adverb yang di gabuntgkan dengan preposition “be=by”, “a=on(across= on cross)” etc.

The examples of compound preposition are across (on cross), along (on long), behind (by hind), about (on by out), above (on by up), before (by fore) beneath (by Neath), beside ( by side), between ( by twain), beyond ( by yonder), but ( by out except), within (with in),  without (with out), etc.

Compound preposition are more one than one word.

4)      Participal Preposition (kt.dpn Partisif)

The examples of participal preposition are:

 Pending (seraya mematikan), during (selama waktu), notwithstanding (Meskipun), past (lewat), except kecuali), considering (mengingat), concerning, regarding (mengenai), etc.

5)      Prepositional Phrases (Frase kt.dpn)

The examples of prepositional phrases are

Prepositional Phrases prepositions are nearly always combined with other worlds in structures. Prepositions generally introduce prepositional phrases. Prepositional phrases look like this

  • Preposition + optional modifiers + noun, pronoun, and gerund

Modifiers ( kata yang menentukan kata sifat)

Here are some examples:

At                    Home

Preposition     Noun

According to  us   

Preposition    Pronouns

To                    drinking

Preposition       Gerund

In                      the             Garden

Preposition      Modifiers   Noun

If you find a noun with or without modifiers you can follow one of these forms

As                  a good       parent

Preposition   Modifiers    Noun

Before            dinner

Preposition      Noun

6)      Disguised Preposition (kt.dpn Tresembunyi)

Telah di perlihatkan bagaimana “by dapat berubah menjadi be” seperti “by hind=behind”, “on mjd a”, a disini dapat dipakai untuk on di sepan gerund(kt. Kerja yg dibedakan)

Here some examples:

v  Three o’clock

     Of clock

v  Jack o’lantern  

  Of the lantern

v  He has gone  a-hunting 

                      On hunting

b)  Based on its Function

Locator in Time and Place

  • Preposition of place and Time (In, On, At)
  1. 1.      In

Digunakan untuk menunjukkan sesuatu yang yang mengelilingi atau melingkupi kita, in juga di gunakan untuk area-area geografis seperti kota,Negara, tahun, dan bulan.

Here some examples:

v  I sleep in my bedroom

  • The chair in the room

In to identify place, In+ city, country (we use in for the names of land-areas “town, counties, states, countries, and continents”)

  • I live in Indonesia

In to identify time, In+ a month, a year, a century, a season (we use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year)

  • I was born in February
  • I was born in 1991
  • I was born in the twentieth century
  • The weather is hot in the summer

In the past, in the present, in the future, in the morning (indicates of time)

  • I usually drink coffee in the morning
  1. 2.      On

On digunakan untuk menunjukan seseuatu yang berada di atas sebuah permukaan. On juga di gunakan untuk nama-nama jalan, tanggal, bulan, weekday.

 Here some examples

v  I sleep on my bed

The book is on my table

on to identify place, On+ names of street (we use on to designate names of streets, avenues)

  • I live on Patimura street

on to identify time, On+ a date/ a weekday (we use on to designate days and dates)

  • I was born on February 23, 1991
  • My uncle is coming on Tuesday

On+ weekday morning(s), afternoon(s), evening (s)

  • I have class on Tuesday morning(s)
  1. 3.      At

At digunakan untuk menunjukan sesuatu yang berada dalam sebuah titik tertentu, seringkali menjadi bagian sebuah garis . At juga digunakan untuk alamat-alamat lengkap dan waktu

Here some examples:

v  He is at the bus stop

  • Joni at the bank

At to identify place, At juga digunakan untuk nama kota kecil, desa kecil atau membicarakan tempat yang jauh At + alamat lengkap (we use at for specific addresses)

  • I live at 36 Nakula Sadewo Road, Salatiga

At to identify time, At + clock time (we use at to designate times

At noon, at night, at midnight

  • I sleep at night/ I was sleep at night
  • I fell tried at 14.30

At present, at the moment, at the present time

  • She’s busy at present
  • Preposition of Time (For and Since)

Here some examples:

v  We use for when we measure time (seconds, minutes, hours, day, month, years)

  • I lives here for six years
  • I will wait you for a minutes

v  We use since with specific date of time

  • He’s worked here since 1991
  • She’s been sitting in waiting room since two thirty
  • Preposition of price
  1. At dipakai untuk jika jumblah uang yang sebenarnya tidak di berikan/ disebutkan
  • I can’t buy the goods at such as high price
  1.  For dipakai jika jumblah uang disebutkan yang  sebenarnya
  • He bought a book for ten dollar

NB: akan tetapi jika berat/ukuranya menyertai harganya “at” boleh dipakai dengan jumblah uang yang sebenarnya

  • The cloth was sold at two dollar a meter

   Conclusion

      Preposition is nearly always combined with other words in structures called Prepositional phrases. Prepositional phrases can be made up of a million different words, but they tend to be built the same: A preposition followed by a determiner and an adjective or two, followed by a pronoun or noun (called the object of the preposition). In generally Preposition typically comes before a noun, a pronoun, and gerund. Look these forming

  • Preposition + optional modifiers + noun, pronoun, and gerund

Modifiers (kata yang menentukan kata sifat)

      Prepositions have six form they are

  1. Simple Preposition (kt.dpn Tunggal)
  2. Double Preposition (kt.dpn Ganda)
  3. Compound Preposition (kt.dpn Majemuk)
  4. Participal Preposition (kt.dpn Partisif)
  5. Prepositional Phrases (Frase kt.dpn)
  6. Disguised Preposition (kt.dpn Tresembunyi)

      In biasanya dipakai didepan nama Negara dan kota besar atau nama tempat pada saat seseorang itu berbicara

      At dipakai di depan nama kota kecil dan desa atau pada waktu membicarakan suatu tempat yang jauh

      Don’t use Unnecessary Preposition. It would be good idea to eliminate these words altogether, but we must be especially careful not to use them in formal, academic prose. For example: the book fell off of the window

      When two words or phrases are used in parallel and require the same preposition to be idiomatically correct, the preposition doesn’t have to be used twice.

For example: you can use your new umbrella in summer and in winter

However, when the idiomatic use of phrases calls for different prepositions, we must be careful not to omit one of them.

 For example: the children were interested in and disgusted by the movie

Daftar Pustaka

  1. Drs. Hartanto, S John, dkk. 2009. English Grammar. INDAH. Surabaya.
  2. Azar,  Betty Schrampfer. 1992. Fundamentals of English Grammar, Second Edition. Tina B.  Carver, New Jersey.
  3. Team of Five. 2006. Improving Reading Skill in English. Kencana, Jakarta.
  4. Written bhttp://www.writingcentre.uottawa.ca/hypergrammar/preposit.htmly Heather MacFadyen di akses pada tanggal 19 September 2011
  5. http://www.1-language.com/englishcourse/unit6_index.htm di akses pada tanggal 19 Sepetember 2011
  6. http://www.englishlanguageguide.com/english/grammar/preposition.asp di akses pada tanggal 19 september 2011
  7. http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/prepositions.htm di akses pada tanggal 19 September 2011
  8. http://www.better-english.com/grammar/prepositions.htm di akses pada tanggal 19 September  2011

 

 

 

 

 

 

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