Hadiah dari Toko Antik


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Matahari menembus sela-sela fentilasi kamarku sehingga mengelitik mataku dan  terpaksa kudorong badan ini untuk condong kedepan. Semalaman belajar dan menyelasaikan tugas sungguh pekerjaan yang sangat menyenangkan sekaligus melelahkan. Andaikan tugas paper ini seperti wajah actors hollywood pasti aku akan selalu mecintai tugas-tugas ini dengan sepuh hati dan jiwaku tanpa melepas pandanganku sedikit pun. Memang bagi beberapa pelajar pasti akan mengeluh kalo harus belajar dan menyelesaikan tugas Pasti merteka akan mengeluh “Wah kenapa sich didunia ini ada istilah belajar dan tugas yang harus dikumpulin… nah apa lagi tuh ujian, kenapa ujian gak cuma ujian kehidupan tapi kenapa juga ada ujian sekolah juga… ya Tuhan kenapa?”.

Namun aku selalu berusaha berfikir positive aja tentang tugas yang harus kulakukan. belajar dan mengejarkan tugas dan apapun lah yang berhubungan dengan tugas dan tangung jawab seorang pelajar. karena hal itulah seorang pelajar untuk jadi orang yang lebih baik dan punya knowlandge yang mumpuni, yah aku selalu berfikir gak ada hidup yang sempurna tanpa perjuangan.

Rasanya pagi ini berbeda dengan pagi-pagi sebelunya, ya pasti berbeda lah kan sudah beda suasana. Yah aku selalu mengeset pikiran ku sesuai keinginanku. Jadi mulai dari bagun tidur aku sudah merecanakan tentang apa yang mau kulakukan dan apa yang tidak mau kulakukan. Bahkan aku membuat daftar tentang hal-hal yang negatif yang harus ku hindari, dan hal itu bahkan harus aku buang dari daftar checklist kehidupanku walaupun sulit. tapi aku selalu membuat cangkang untuk mutiaraku yang dimana cangkang itu selalu kupoles dengan kuas manis kehidupanku agar mutiara didalamnya tak ternoda oleh bercak hitam pasir dan lumpur kehidupan meskipun kadang aku merasa naif untuk menutupi diriku dengan cangkang dan kuas, ya bisa disebut juga dengan kuas lem. tertutup rapat dan tak menunjukan diriku yang sebenarnya.

Tak hanya itu aku juga membuat daftar hal-hal positif yang harus aku jalankan dalam setiap hariku. Yah, aku pun bersyukur kepada Tuhan tentang apa yang telah diberikanya padaku padasaat ini. keluarga yang sempurna ayah, ibu, dan kakak yang selalu memberikan senyum tulusnya untukku. walaupun aku menunjukan mutiaraku yang segungguhnya tanpa menggunakan cakang dan kuas untuk menutupi diriku yang sesungguhnya. “Ya Tuhan terimaksih engkau telah melahirkankku di keluarga ini” ucapku dengan serigaih senyum yang lebar.

“Shandy, cepat bagun nanti kamu telat masuk sekolah loh, apalagi kamu belum sarapan juga” seru Ibu yang mengetuk kamarku sambil mengunakan celemek masak kesayangannya itu.

Ibu… Ibu kenapa sich gak bisa terlepas dari celemek kebangaanya itu. Dipagi yang indah ini mataku sebenarnya agak geli melihat celemek usang Ibu, tapi aku suka sich saat Ibu memakai celemek itu. Ibu terlihat manis dan cantik dibalut dengan celemek yang berwarna pink-purple itu. memaang sich ada kenangan manis dibalik celemek kesanyangan ibu itu. Saat aku turun darikamar dan bertemu dengan semua keluarga ku ayah,kakak, dan Ibu. Aku sesekali menggoda ibu saat didapur, Aku memengang tangan ibu dan mengajaknya menari mengangkat tanganya dan memutar badan ibu yang dibilang sich sudah tidak langsing lagi dan tak heran jika tubuh ibu terhuyun-huyun karena ulahku itu. Ayah dan kak Dimas yang melihat ulahku itu melontarkan senyum lebar dan sesekali ayah mengernyitkan alis panjangnya dan bergumam.

“Shandy, kasihan ibu mu…. lihat mommy manisku sudah tak seluwes waktu muda dulu, tapi ayah jadi gemas melihat mommy ku sayang dan my sweety ku ini”.

Aku pun memutar-mutar mataku dan di akhir putaran mataku kuberikan kedipan mata yang manis seperti bintang, ini adalah salah satu isyarat agar ayah mau meredakan gumamanya terhadap tingkahku yang mengonyolkan ini. Kak Dimas pun tak sanggup untuk menahan ledakan tawa yang ada didalam mulutnya, baginya menahan tawa ini bagaikan mengunyah permen karet bom dan saat kunyahan itu sudah siap untuk ditiup dan busssh meledak dech tawa besar megema di dapaur mugil rumah kami. Namun aku suka masa-masa seperti ini karena kehagatan keluarga yang harmonis mengalir dalam atmosfer seluruh ruangan rumah kami.

Celemek pink-purple yang menebarkan kebahagian manis ini memang memiliki ceritanya tersendiri dan hal itu dimulai pada saat ulang tahun pernikahan ayah dan ibu yang ke-25 tahun. pada pagi itu aku sudah dipusingkan dengan checklist kejutan yang akan aku buat untuk ibu. Aku pun terhuyun-huyun senang bagun dari meja belajarku dengan membawa daftar yang aku persiapkan untuk ibu. Nah langkah pertama yang ku ambil adalah menemui ayah atau daddy ku sayang sambil membawa daftar itu biasa untuk meminta dana kejutan kecil untuk ibu. Aku pun tak lupa mengajak kakak ku untuk turut serta menyiapkan kejutan kecil untuk ibu.

Recanaku ini bagaikan cerita dalam kisah film dan novel-novel romantic yang sudah diset sedemikian hingga agar nampak sempurna untuk dijalankan. Ayah sebagai Robert Pattinson dan ibu sebagai Bella Swan dalam kisah Twilight yang dimana mereka akan berdansa bersama dibawah rembulan dan dikelilingi dengan bunga mawar putih dan lilin yang bercahaya lembut untuk menyinari wajah mereka.  Aku sudah tak sabar untuk merekam adegan ini bila nanti benar-benar terjadi. Indah pasti seluruh mahluk di dunia akan iri saat melihat seorang anak dapat melakukan hal yang menakjubkan ini demi menunjukan kasih sayangnya untuk ayah dan ibu tercintanya. Aku pun serasa terbang ke langin seperti dalam film Sky High yang harus naik bus untuk sampai kesekolahan yang berada dilangit dan berusaha agar bisa menjadi super hero, yang pada akhirnya aku akan mengunakan tenagaku untuk menciptakan bunga-bunga indah yang bermekaran demi mereka.

Aku berserigaih lebar saat berjalan menghapiri ayah yang dari tadi perhatiannya hanya terpusat pada lembaran-lembaran kertas yang setiap pagi dilempar tukang koran dari sepedanya menuju beranda rumah kami. Raut muka ayah sudah seperti pengamat politikus handal dan kritikus handal bahkan aku tak segan untuk bilang ayah ku sudah seperti pembawa acara berita yang tau semua hal tentang Hit News hari ini. bahakan tak segan-segan ayah mengajaku mengobrol tentang hal-hal terbaru, seumpamanya pasar bebas indonesia yang naik di pasar Asia atau bahkan membahas tentang kepemimpinan gubernur Jakarta yang baru seperti pak Jokowi yang mengesankan seperti super hero baru untuk kota Jakarta yang selalu dilamda banjir setiap tahunya. Yah aku hanya berharap kepada pak Jokowi agar maslah di kota Metropolitan ini segera terselesaikan mulai dari yang terkecil sampai yang terbesar seperti kebudayaan korupsi yang meraja lela di Indonesia kususnya di kota Jakarta tercintaku ini. Yah I Hope it will finish.

Ahirnya kudorong tanganku untuk megeser koran ayah agar wajah pajang nan tanpa ayah terlihat olehku. aku pun segara mengeluarkan jurus rengekan princess ku.

“Ayolah, ayah ku daddy ku tercinta. Ayah inggatkan ini hari apa”

Ayah hanya mengagguk sambil membenarkan kacamatanya yang turun bagaikan turun dari prosotan di TK ku waktu aku masih kecil dulu. Ayah hanya memutar bola matanya menuju wajahku yang chubby bagaikan bola bekel yang lucu dan meloncat-loncat siap untuk ditangkap ayah. Sesekali ayah megeser badannya untuk berpindah posisi duduk mencari posisi ternyaman.

Saat aku melihat ayah aku hanya memutar mataku untuk melihat seluaruh ruangan ini agar mendapat ispirasi kata-kata yang tepat untuk bilang ke ayah agar ayah mau merogoh saku hitamnya yang ada dibelakang badannya, kemudia mengelurkan beberapa lembar kertas berwrna merah dan biru. Yah itu sich harapnku tapi aku tak tahu lembaran apa yang akan dikeluarkan ayah untukku. Aku melihat beberapa boneka yang terpajang di meja ikut melihatku dan medoakanku. mereka menujukan mata mugil nan indahnya untukku dan mungkin boneka-boneka itu berharap agar ayah segera merogoh katong celananya dan menghucurkan lembaran-lembaran uang kertasnya.  Merka seakan tahu harapanku saat aku melirik boneka-boneka lucu yang terpajang di meja kayu panjang itu.

Ahirnya aku mencoba menghirup udara diruangan ini untuk mengisi rogga dadaku agar aku berani mebusung dan merayu ayah. serasa semua udara ini telah ku hisap tanpa sisa aku pun merasakan oksigen yang masuk dalam paru-paru ku menyalurkan energi keberanian untukku. Mungkin aku juga memerlukan pundi-pundi udara seperti yang dimiliki burung agar aku dapat menyipan oksigen segar ini agar otak tak mengalami miss saat berbicara kepada ayah. Aku pun mengusap usap dadaku dan mendekati ayah. aku tak tahan mata lembut ayah nan tajam berusaha mencoba mencari maksud kedatanganku menghapiri ayah. mata ayah sepeti elang yang sudah memulai searching kedalam hatiku dan saat elang itu telah menemukan mangsanya hap mangsanya pun tertangkakap. Kalau ayah pasti langsung tahu maksudaku apa.

Aku belum mengucapkan banyak kata hanya ” Ayah ingatkan sekarang hari apa”. Ayah hanya mengangguk dan mebenarkan lagi posisi duduknya. ayah sepertinya sudah menangkap signal-signal dariku tanpa aku harus mengucapkan banyak kata seperti dalam rencanaku tadi. Tapi ayah sudah tau dengan menatap wajahku dan gerak gerik bahasa tubuhku yang begitu kaku namun jujur. aku hanya mencoba mengakat tanganku untuk minta uang namun ayah sudah bisa menangkapnya, dan hap ayah menarik dopet coklat loius Volutionnya dan menarik satu lembar uang berwarna hijau. aku pun tercenagang Hah… apa? hanya selembar berwarna hijau. aku pun tercengan dan mengelurkan jurus seribu rayuannku untuk ayah. Mana mungkin uang selembar berwarna hijau atau dibilang dalam nominalnya itu hanya Rp 20000, saja. Aku pun mencoba untuk memutar otak ku dengan uang Rp 20000, bisa dapat apa ya?

            Rasanya aku perlu mengocok kepalaku agar aku dapat mengfungsikan kembali saraf-saraf otakku agar aku dapat berfikir dengan jernih. Uang yang hanya Rp 20000 ini bisa dapat apanya? Dizaman modern seperti ini apalagi harga BBM baru saja naik. Rasanya aku seperti diatas pelagi yang indah dan kemudian kaki-kaki mugilku ini menginjak sebuah black holl yang mengatarkanku kedalam jurang kegalauan untuk memilih hadiah yang pas untuk ibu.

            Tanggal 23 Februari tinggal 2 hari lagi dan aku pun masih memutar otakku untuk mendapatkan hadiah ulang tahun pernikahan ibu yang ke 25 tahun ini. Aku dan kak dimas berusaha berunding untuk menemukan solusi. Memang sich ayah mencoba untuk mengetes aku dan kak Dimas. Ayah mencoba mengetes seberapa besar usaha kami untuk mendapatkan hadiah pernikahan mereka yang ke-25 tahun ini dengan uang yang ngepres alias pas-pasan, ayah juga tak mengijikan kami untuk mengunakan uang tabungan kami. Karena ayah tahu bahwa uang tabungan yang kami kumpulkan ini akan kami gunakan untuk keperluan kami medatang untuk menuntut ilmu. Karena sejak awal ayah dan ibu sudah mendidik kami untuk mengutamakan pendidikan dan sejak kami kecil ayah sudah megajarkan kami untuk menabung. Ayah hanya memperbolehkan kami mengunakan uang ini untuk membeli keperluan sekolah tambahan yang ingin kami beli seperti buku-buku penunjang materi sekolah atau untuk membatu orang lain yang membutuhkan. Karena untuk keperluan lain yang kami inginkan ayah sudah mencukupi semuanya itu.

            Aku bersyukur bisa tumbuh dikeluarga yang kecukupan ini, apalagi dengan sosok figur kedua orang tua kami yang begitu menyayangi kami dan selalu mendidik kami agar selalu berbagi dengan orang lain. Aku dan kak dimas sebetulnya tahu kalo ayah mencoba mengetes kami. Ayah mencoba mengetes seberapa besar usaha kami untuk mambahagiakan orang tua dengan cinta kami yang difasilitasi dengan kesederhanaan materi ini. Hanya bermodalkan Rp 20000 ini, benda apa yang tidak dapat dilupakan oleh mereka khususnya ibu.

“kak Dimas mata ku sudah gak kuat lagi nich! Buat mikir rasanya sudah pengen tidur coba lihat jam dinding diatas perapian itu udah menunjukan pukul 01.00 WIB” meskipun perapian ruang tegah kami tak pernah terpakai karena di Jakarta gak pernah turun salju tapi menurutku perapian diruang tegah ini terlihat lumanyan manis dengan jam diding mengelantung diatas dindingnya. Maklum ayah seorang arsitek yang suka medesain sebuah rumah agar terlihat cantik dan nyaman. Kakak hanya megerakkan kepalanya dengan satu tolehan saja dan lirikan matanya bak elang yang menemukan mangsanya hap matanya tertuju pada angka satu yang seakan-akan menari-nari dengan gemulai seperti mencoba menghipnotis mata ku yang sudah mulai meredup ini. kusegol pundak kak Dimas yang gagah itu dengan tenaga dalam yang tersisa dari tumbuh ini. “ kak gimana aku tidur dulu ya” suara low roar ku ini seperti pertanda pertahananku sudah tak kuat lagi. Aku pun mengerakan badan ku meninggalkan karpet bulu lembut didepan perapian ini. Dan hap wajah ku pun menangkap sebuah bantal empuk yang rasanya seperti bom alamrem penunjuk ekspresi kekesalan kak Dimas yang coba aku tinggal sendiri. “ Ah gimana sich dek, Kak Dimas kan juga udah ngantuk kamu malah main tinggal aja tanpa bosa-basi ngajak kakak tidur” Perut ku pun terasa tergelitik medengar ucapkan kak Dimas yang ternyata pertahanan matanya juga sudah kejebolan dengan rasa kantuk yang kuat. “ yah sapa suruh diam aja, adek kan  udah bilangkan sama kak Dimas kalo adek mau tidur dulu kak! Kakak aja yang gak tanggap. Ya udah kak kita mikir solusinya besok lagi ya”

            Kak Dimas yang pasrah karena sudah dilanda rasa kantuk pun menggelengkan kepalanya dengan gemulai seperti mebentuk tangga nada lagu. Aku pun terkekeh melihat ekspresi wajah kak Dimas yang tergambar seperti  botol yogurth yang terlihat manis tapi terasa asam. Aku pun melakah dengan gontai menuju kamar ku yang berada di sudut lantai dua. Rasanya daun pintu kamarku yang terbuka sedikit merayuku dengan lambaian warna pink purplenya untuk merayuku agar segera masuk kedalamnya. Bruk aku pun merebahkan tubuh ku yang terasa berat ini kedalam kasur empuk yang diselimuti oleh bed cover merah bergambar pengantin cina yang terlihat imut dan manis.

            Akhirnya pagi pun tiba pertanda hari kami untuk mencari hadiah untuk ulang tahun pernikahan ayah dan ibu tercintaku sudah berkurang satu hari. Aku pun segera menarik selimut yang mebungkus kak Dimas bak  kepongpong ulat yang siap menetas. Mending kalo kepongpong ulat menetasnya indah nah kalo ini menetasnya bukan indah lagi tapi bau gas beracun. “ Ah kak Dimas gimana sich dibangunin malah mengebom aku dengan gas beracun” aku pun tak segan-segan menedang bokong kan Dimas yang terlihat mengunung itu. Haitcha dug gubrak yach berhasil akhirnya kak Dimas terguling dengan indah. Yah meskipun aku terlihat sedikit seperti adik yang jahat sich, tapi ini jalan terakhir yang bisa aku lakukan untuk memelapskan kak dimas dari kepongpong kemalasanya itu apa lagi kak Dimas itu raja tidur.

             Aku dan kak Dimas akhirnya menemui bik Surti yang sedang menyiram bunga krisan kesanyanku di taman belakang. “ bik jangan lupa mawar dan angrekku disiram ya, eh bik tau gak tempat belanja yang barang-barangnya murah dan bagus-bagus” Bik Surti pun sedikit mengerakan matanya untuk ikut berfikir. “ oh bibik tau non, coba non ke pasar tanah abang aja. Disanakan banyak barang-barang murah non”. Oh iya kenapa kau gak terfikir untuk serching ke pasar tanah abang aja ya. “ ok bik makasih” aku pun memeluk bik Surti dan melempar senyum imutku tanda ucapan makasih. Maklum lah bik Surti sudah aku anggap seprti nenekku sendiri karena bik Surti sudah merawat kak Dimas dan aku sejak kecil.

            “Kak Dimas buruan keluar dari kamar. Ayo, kita pergi ke pasar tanah abang buat cari hadiah buat Ibu dan Ayah”. Dengan suara nada super tinggi ku panggil kak Dimas dengan lantang. Kak Dimas pun langsung menjawab seruanku dengan nada datar “ Bentar adek ku sayang kakak baru ambil kunci mobil dikamar kakak”. Dengan perasaan tak sabar yang meluap-luap aku medenagar suara lirih musik klasik dari depan rumah ku. Ternyata suara itu berasal dari kelurga Mr.Smith. Tetanggaku depan rumah mereka memang selalu bahagia meskipun mereka tinggal berdua karena semua anaknya tinggal di Negeri kincir angin Belanda.

Aku pernah bertanya kepada Mr.Smith dan Mrs.Smith, apakah anda bahagia hanya tinggal berdua saja tanpa anak-anak anda? Dia menjawab “Happiness is easy my dear, if you bealive each other it can makes you happy, beacuse happiness comes when we could share it with warm heart” aku pun bertanya “Even though we live in different place with long distance?”. Kemudian Mrs.Smith menyetuh dadaku tepatnya di jatung ku. Kemudian Mrs.Smith berkata “the key of happiness in here… is not about money, price, or expensive things… without we meet them we still have hope and wish for them… that is enough for me… because they are also have there own life… could see them happy is enough for me as mother and father… so happiness is easy… if we could understand each other goodly and could accept everything about them wisely… that mean of happiness for me”

Aku pun memandang Mr.Smith and Mrs.Smith yang masih berdansa di ruang kelurganya. Jendela kotak dengan korden yang terbuka itu serasa membuka kembali kenagan ku dengan kelurga Smith ini. Kenangan yang membuatku teringat perkataan mereka. Bahwa kunci kebahagiaan itu bukan soal besar harga hadiah, uang, atau apa pun melainka jika kita mau menerima dan mau memberikan hati kita dengan kehangatan kasih sayang itu sudah cukup. Tidak harus selalu bertemu atau apalah, melainka dengan harapan dan doa kita untuk orang yang kita cintai itu saja sudah cukup untuk membuat kebahagiaan dalam hidup kita. Karena dengan hal tersebut orang yang kita sayangi akan lebih peka merasakan kasih sayang kita terhadap meraka, karena kebahagiaan adalah hal yang mudah untuk diciptakan asalkan kita tau kuncinya. Kuncinya adalah hati dan perasaan yang hangat terhadap orang yang ada disekeliling kita walaupun terpisahkan jarak dan waktu.

Aku pun semakin bersemangat untuk mencari hadiah untuk orang tuaku. Akupun kaget saat kak dimas menepuk pundaku dengan kencang. “Plak… aduh adek pagi-pagi gini udah glamun entar kesambet baru tau rasa kamu”. Aku hanya tersenyum dan langsung memeluk tangan kakak yang kuat dan hangat sambil berkata. “ kak dimas tau gak kalo aku benar-benar sayang kak Dimas dan Ayah Ibu”. Kak Dimas pun mengusap-usap kepalaku seperti mengusap kucing anggora kami yang manis. “idih kak Dimas, emangnya aku kitty gembul. Diusap-usap kayak kucing”. Sebenarnya hati ku bahagia sich dengan ulah kak Dimas. Karena aku tahu hal yang dilakukan kak Dimas ini bentuk kasih sayang kak Dimas buat aku. “Let’s Go …Kak Dimas saatnya hunting hadiah buat Ayah dan Ibu” . Kak Dimas pun menjawab “ iya, nona kecilku yang manja. Sekarang saatnya tancap gas buat berburu hal terhebat buat Ayah dan ibu”.

Lagi-lagi kepala kami serasa terkena komet helly saat kami ingat kalo kami hanya punya uang dua puluh ribu rupiah. Aku pun berkata pada kak Dimas “ kak masih ingat Film 3 Idiot gak? All Is Well kak” . kakak pun mengangguk “okay adek kecil ku saat nya membuat keajaiban dengan quote ALL IS WELL HAPPINESS IS EASY TO REACH”. Aku pun mengacungka dua jempolku untuk kakak.

Akhirnya mobil kami sapai di pasar tanah abang. Banyak sekali orang-orang berlalu lalang diparkiran ini. Serasa parking area ini bukan parking area lagi tapi udah jadi market yang sebenarnya. Sebab banyak sekali orang yang mebawa tas besar dengan belanjaan yang penuh. Tak hanya itu mereka juga ngobrol tanpa henti ada yang gobrol dengan orang didekatnya dan ada juga ada yang gobrol dengan Handphone yang mereka gengam.

Aku serasa terlempar kenegeri dongeng Film Harry Potter part one, saat Harry Potter mencoba untuk mencari sapu terbangnya di pasar traditional yang begitu penuh sesak dengan orang plus warna tembok-tembok yang sudah tua dan tidak segar lagi. Yach seperti inilah gambaran pasar tanah abang. Sebuah pasar traditional tanpa balutan cet yang masih virgin, alias semua cet di pasar ini sudah berwarna tua dan tak cerah lagi. Namun ada atmosfer mistis yang membuat orang-orang suka belanja ditempat ini. Faktor mistisnya ya karena barang-barang disini murah lah. Aku pun terpekik geli saat berfikir tempat ini seperti dalam negri sihir hehehehehe.

            “ayow kak kita kesana” akhirnya kaki kami terhenti disebuah toko antik tua dengan barang-barang unik dengan harga-harga murah. Setelah aku dan kak Dimas memilih-milih mata kami bertemu dalam satu titik warna yang mempesona, yaitu warna kesukaan Ibu yaitu warna pink-purple yang manis. Benda itu terpajang dalam boneka wanita yang terlihat kurus namun terlihat sangat luwes memakai benda ini. Aku pun menyegol perut kak Dimas dengan siku tanganku. “kak yang ini ya” kak Dimas pun menganguk dengan lemah “He’em” akhirnya kami megoyangkan bell yang di atas meja untuk memanggil si penjual. Aku dan kak Dimas sangat kaget, karena penjual toko ini sudah tua sekalia. Kemudian kami bertanya kepada nenek tua ini. “Nenek harga celemek ini berapa?”. Nenek pun menjawab harganya mahal nak, karena celemek ini bisa meberikan kebahagiaan didalam kehidupan orang yang memakainya”. “kok bisa nek” nenek tua yang rambutnya sudah putih dan kusut ini pun semakin membuatku penasaran. “kenapa bisa seperti itu nek?” kemudian nenek tua ini pun menceritakan kisah dari celemek pink-purple ini.

“sebenarnya celemek ini pemberian dari suami nenek yang sudah meninggal. Memang celemek ini terlihat masih bagus dan baru, karena nenek tidak pernah memakainya. Sebab setelah suami nenek memberikan celemek ini, suami nenek mendapatkan tugas untuk berangkat kebandung sebagai tenaga kesehataan saat masa perang Bandung lautan api. Nenek hanya menyimpan celemek ini, karena nenek berharap dapat memakai celemek ini saat suami nenek dirumah. Sehingga suami nenek dapat melihat nenek dengan tatapan yang manis saat memasak masakan enak untuknya. Namun harapan nenek hancur saat seminggu setelah suami nenek berangkat tugas nenek mendapatkan surat kalo suami nenek meninggal. Nenek sangat sedih dan memutuskan tidak akan memakai celemek ini. Karena celemek ini adalah kenagan terahir dan terindah dari suami nenek. Sehingga nenek ingin selalu menyimpanya dengan rapi dan indah”. Aku pun merengek hebat kepada nenek tua ini “ nenek aku ingin beli celemek ini nek, untuk hadiah pernikahan orang tuaku yang ke-25 tahun nek” aku semakin meregek karena tau cerita dibalik celemek ini memang benar-benar mengaharukan.

 Benar kata Mr.Smith kebahagiaan itu bukan soal nominal tapi satu kuncinya yaitu apa yang ada dihati kita. Nenek pun tetap tak mau menjual celemeknya untukku. Aku tetap tak mau menyerah, aku pun berbicang dengan nenek ini. Saat itu nenek merry memegang sisir putih tuanya. Akupun menawarkan bantuan untuk nenek merry. “ nek mau aku bantu menyisir rambut nenek?” kak Dimas hanya duduk manis sambil melihat-lihat etalase nenek merry yang dipenuhi oleh benda antik. “iya nak” aku pun menyisir rambut nenek merry dengan senang karena aku merasa memiliki nenek baru. Karena nenek sudah tidak ada didunia ini. Akhirnya jam antik nenek merry berbunyuk tepat pukul lima sore. Aku pun tetap memaksa nenek merry untuk menjual celemeknya pada ku. “ Nek, aku memiliki seorang Ibu dan Ayah yang sangat berharga bagiku. Ayah ku berkata tidak perlu membelikan barang mewah atau mahal untuk menunjukan kasih sayang mu kepada Ayah dan Ibu, Cukup dengan senyum dan hati lembut mu saja sudah cukup untuk ayah. Walau pun nenek tidak memberikan celemek ini untuk aku. Aku akan tetap datang ketempat ini setiap ahari untuk mengirimkan masakan Ibuku untuk nenek Merry. Karena nenek merry adalah sesosok nenek bagi ku. Sesosok waniata yang ingin selalu mejaga cinta sejatinya dengan menyimpan celemek dari suami nenek dengan baik”. Aku pun berdiri dari korsi yang aku duduki sambil menepuk kedua kaki kak Dimas. “ Sampai jumapa besok ya nenek Merry”. Aku pun melangkah keluar menuju pintu coklat toko nenek Merry. “ tunggu nak” nenek Merry pun memberikan bungkusan yang terselimuti plastik hitam. “ Ini nak hadiah untuk Ibu mu… jangan kamu buka disini dan kamu tidak boleh membukanya hanya ibumu yang boleh membukanya. Ini gratis untuk ibu kamu, karena kamu benar-benar ingin membuat orang tua mu bahagia” Aku pun tersenyum lebar dan memeluk nenek merry dengan erat. “terimakasih nenek Merry aku akan sering-sering datang kemari ya nek”.

            Akhirnya uang kami tetap untuh dua puluh ribu. Aku dan kakak memutuskan untuk membeli sebuket bunga mawar dan krisan untuk Ibu. Ibu pun sudah menyiapan masakan enaknya dan kami sekelurga berkumpul diruang makan. Memang Ibu dan Ayah adalah orang yang sederhana yang terpenting adalah kehangat cinta itu nomer satu bagi Ibu.

            Akupun tak tahu apa isi dari plastik hitam pemberian nenek Merry. Aku hanya menundukan mukaku saat memberikan hadiah ini untuk Ibu dan kak dimas memberikan bunganya untuk Ibu. Akhirnya Ibu pun membuka plastik itu dengan senyum manisnya. Saat ibu membuka plastik itu Ibu melihat kain berwarna Pink-purple dan jam tangan berwarna silver untuk. Jam tangan yang cocok digunakan untuk seorang laki-laki dibawah jam tersebut terdapat surat dari nenek Merry. Ibu dan Ayah pun membaca surat itu. Aku dan kak Dimas pun tidak tahu apa isi dari surat itu, namun tiba-tiba Ibu meneteskan air matanya. Ibu sangat terharumungkin isi surat itu berisikan kisah hidup nek Merry. Ayah pun mencium kening ibu dengan mesra Ibu pun mengangkat mukanya dan tersenyum kepada kami sambil membuka lebar kedua buah tangan Ibu. Aku pun dan Kak Dimas pun datang menghampiri ibu sambil mengucapkan.

“ Ayah Ibu selamat hari ulang tahun pernikahan Ayah dan Ibu ya, Semoga Ayah dan Ibu selalu bahagia” Ayah pun ikut memeluk kami sambil menunjukan semyum bahagianya untuk kami. Aku pun tak tahu apa yang ditulis nenek Merry untuk ibu, namun aku tahu pasti yang ditulis nenek Merry adalah sesuatu hal yang indah. Jam tangan manis milik suami nenek Merry sekarng pun masih selalalu menemani tangan hebat Ayah.

Ayah berkata “ sekarang apa kalian mengerti apa itu kebahagiaan anak-anaku yang manis. Kebahagiaan itu bukan soal harga barang atau kemewahan yang hal yang didapat, melainkan sebuah kenagan yang indah dan kehagatan hatilah kunci dari semua itu. Saat kita bisa membuat hati orang lain nyaman dan membuat mereka tersenyum. Itulah arti kebahagiaan. Kebahagiaan itu mudah, namun terkadang bisa menjadi hal yang sulit. Karena terkadang seseorang membuat setandar tersendiri untuk mengartikan kebahagiaan. Jadi jaganlah kalian membuat setandar kebahagiaan namun buatlah hatimu itu hangat dengan kasih sayang untuk orang lain”.

Sejak saat itu celemek pink-pulpule dan Jam tangan berwarna silver ini selalu menghiasi kebahagiaan rumah kami. Sesekali aku pergi ketempat nenek Merry. “Ibu makanan untuk nenek Merry sudah siap? Aku dan Kak Dimas Pergi dulu ya ke tanah abang” Ibu pun melempari kami dengan senyum manisnya yang dipenuhi dengan kasih sayang. Ayah pun melambaikan tangan besarnya dengan ringan sambil menjawab salam kami “Wa’alaikum salam hati-hati dijalan nak… dan salam untuk nenek Merry ya”. Mobil kami pun keluar menjauhi garasi untuk melaju ketanah abang.

Aku Berani Bermimpi


Udara pagi menembus sum-sum tulang ini, gemricik air wudhu membentuk melodi keindahan Sang Illahi, bagaikan salju yang mencair menyejukan kulit ini. Sambil menegadahkan kedua tangan ini kumulai panjatkan syukur yang tiada terkira atas biasan cinta dan kasih-Nya. Tanpa izinnya mungkin … Baca lebih lanjut

PRAGMATIC POLITENESS AND INTERACTION


PRAGMATIC POLITENESS AND INTERACTION

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

 

A.    Background of Study

As human being we need to do the interaction with other people. Every interaction will has different sense  depend on the person who do it.  As a human we also are able to separate fromthe socialinteraction. Especially when we talk about linguistic interaction. We will know if there are many factors that talk about it. To get the sense of interaction we should look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness. Every interaction that people do usually got the impact from their  culture and behavior.  So when we do the interaction with them. We will think how to show our politeness to our listener/ partner. To show it we usually adapted from their culture and behavior. Pragmatic is the one of the study that talk about it especially in the politeness and interaction.

People are not born polite but acquire it from learning. When we are communicating with each other consciously or unconsciously, cultural backgrounds affect our behaviors and reactions. People live in a certain cultural environment, and his/her behaviors are featured by his/her cultures. In order to avoid cultural misunderstandings which will lead to communication failure, people should abide by a certain courtesy criteria. The American philosopher and logician, Paul Grice pointed out that in conversation, the participants must first of all be willing to cooperate; otherwise, it would not be possible for them to carry on the talk. In another hand, I will talk it more in this paper because when we learn to get sense of interaction we will examine about Politeness and Interaction too. 

B.     Problem of Study

Based on the above background, the problem in this study can be formulated as follows.

1.      What is the definition of Politeness and Interaction?

2.      What is the Politeness Principle?

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

A.    Definition of Politeness and interaction

Politeness theory is the theory that accounts for the redressing of the affronts to face posed by face-threatening acts to addressees. First formulated in 1978 by Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson, politeness theory has since expanded academia’s perception of politeness. Politeness is the expression of the speakers’ intention to mitigate face threats carried by certain face threatening acts toward another (Mills, 2003, p. 6). Another definition is “a battery of social skills whose goal is to ensure everyone feels affirmed in a social interaction”. Being polite therefore consists of attempting to save face for another.

According to dictionary.com, politeness is defined as “showing good manners towards others” or as being “refined or cultured” (2011); however, in the field of linguistics the concept of politeness is much more complex. This website outlines some of the theorists who have made major contributions to the development of politeness theory and its role in discourse. We found that Lakoff, Leech and Brown and Levinson were some of the earliest linguists to study politeness. Since then, many other theorists have either built on their ideas and principles or tried to disprove them. Fraser and Nolen and Scollon and Scollon propose a more social interactional perspective on politeness. Eelen and Watts, on the other hand, differ from previous theorists by dividing politeness into two separate definitions and by stressing the differences within politeness due to culture.

According to Brown and Levinson (1987) everyone has self-public image which has relation to emotional and social sense of self and expects everyone else to recognize.Politeness refers to the common notion of the term, that is, the way politeness manifests itself in communicative interaction.  Politeness is one of the constraints of human interaction, whose purpose is to consider other`s feelings, establish levels of mutual comfort, and promote rapport. Hill et al. (1986: 282). Politeness is what we think is appropriate behaviour in particular situations in an attempt to achieve and maintain successful social relationships with others  (Lakoff 1972: 910).

 According to To Watts (2003:39) politeness can be identified as follows:

1.      Politeness is the natural attribute of a ‘good’ character.

2.      Politeness is the ability to please others through one’s external actions .

3.      Politeness is the ideal union between the character of an individual and his external actions .

 Leech defines politeness as a type of behaviour that allows the participants to engage in a social interaction in an atmosphere of relative harmony. In stating his maxims Leech uses his own terms for two kinds of illocutionary acts. He calls representatives “assertives”, and calls directives “impositives”. According to Yule politeness is the awareness of another person face. The word “face” in this case refers to the public self-inage of a person. The examples of politness:

 

·         A student to teacher

Student    : Excuse me Mr. Buckingham, but can I talk to you for a minute?

·         Friend to friend

Hey Bucky, got a minute?

politeness = the means empoyed to show awareness of another person’s face,

showing awareness for a socially distant person’s face          respect, deference showing awareness for a socially close person’s face                   friendliness, solidarity

 

B.     The Approches of Politeness

1.      Leech’s (1983) Maxims of Politeness

a.       Tact maxim

The tact maxim is minimizing cost to other and maximizing benefit to other. This maxim is applied in Searle’s speech act, commissives and directives called by Leech as impositives. Commissives is found in utterances that express speaker’s intention in the future action. Then, Directives/ impositives are expressions that influence the hearer to do action. The example of the tact maxim is as follows:

“Won‘t you sit down?”

“Could I interrupt you for half a second – what was the website address?”

 

It is the directive/ impositive utterance. This utterance is spoken to ask the hearer sitting down. The speaker uses indirect utterance to be more polite and minimizing cost to the hearer. This utterance implies that sitting down is benefit to the hearer.

The tact maxim states: ‘Minimize the expression of beliefs which imply cost to other; maximize the expression of beliefs which imply benefit to other.’ The first part of this maxim fits in with Brown and Levinson‘s negative politeness strategy of minimising the imposition, and the second part reflects the positive politeness strategy of attending to the hearer’s interests, wants, and needs:

Could I interrupt you for a second?

If I could just clarify this then.

 

b.      Generosity maxim

The generosity maxim states to minimizing benefit to self and maximizing cost to self. Like tact maxim, the generosity maxim occurs in commissives and directives/ impositives. Unlike the tact maxim, the maxim of generosity focuses on the speaker, and says that others should be put first instead of the self. This maxim is centered to self, while the tact maxim is to other. The example will be illustrated as follows:

 

You relax and let me do the dishes.

You must come and have dinner with us.

maximize cost/minimize benefit to yourself

Could I copy the web address?

 

It is an advice utterance that is involved in directive illocutionary act. In this case the speaker implies that cost of the utterance is to his self. Meanwhile, the utterance implies that benefit is for the hearer.

 

c.       Approbation maxim

The approbation maxim requires to minimizing dispraise of other and maximizing praise of other. This maxim instructs to avoid saying unpleasant things about others and especially about the hearer. This maxim occurs in assertives/ representatives and expressives. Assertives/ representatives are utterances that express the true propositional. Meanwhile, expressive are utterances that show the speaker feeling. The example is sampled below.

 

A: “The performance was great!”

B: “Yes, wasn’t it!”

minimize dispraise/maximize praise of the other person

Mary you’re always so efficient – do you have copy of that web address?

 

The Approbation maxim states: ‘Minimize the expression of beliefs which express dispraise of other; maximize the expression of beliefs which express approval of other.’ It is preferred to praise others and if this is impossible, to sidestep the issue, to give some sort of minimal response (possibly through the use of euphemisms), or to remain silent. The first part of the maxim avoids disagreement; the second part intends to make other people feel good by showing solidarity.

 

-I heard you singing at the karaoke last night. It sounded like you were enjoying yourself!

-Gideon, I know you’re a genius – would you know how to solve this math problem here?

 

In the example, A gives a good comment about the performance. He talks the pleasant thing about other. This expression is a congratulation utterance that maximizes praise of other. Thus this utterance is included the approbation maxim.

 

d.      Modesty maxim

In the modesty maxim, the participants must minimize praise of self and maximize dispraise of self. This maxim is applied in assertives/ representatives and expressives like the approbation maxim. Both the approbation maxim and the modesty maxim concern to the degree of good or bad evaluation of other or self that is uttered by the speaker. The approbation maxim is exampled by courtesy of congratulation. On other hand, the modesty maxim usually occurs in apologies. The sample of the modesty maxim is below.

 

1. “Please accept this small gift as prize of your achievement.”

2. “Oh, I’m so stupid – I didn’t make a note of our lecture! Did you?”

maximize dispraise/minimize praise of yourself

Oh I’m so stupid – I didn’t make a not of that web address. Did you?

 

In this case, the utterance above is categorized as the modesty maxim because the speaker maximizes dispraise of himself. The speaker notices his utterance by using  “small gift”.

 

e.       Agreement maxim

In the agreement maxim, there is tendency to maximize agreement between self and other people and minimize disagreement between self and other. The disagreement, in this maxim, usually is expressed by regret or partial agreement.It is in line with Brown and Levinson‘s positive politeness strategies of ‘seek agreement’ and ‘avoid disagreement,’ to which they attach great importance. However, it is not being claimed that people totally avoid disagreement. It is simply observed that they are much more direct in expressing agreement, rather than disagreement.  This maxim occurs in assertives/ representatives illocutionary act. There example will be illustrated below.

 

A: “English is a difficult language to learn.”

B: “True, but the grammar is quite easy.”

 

A: I don’t want my daughter to do this, I want her to do that.

B: Yes, but ma’am, I thought we resolved this already on your last visit.

minimize disagreement/maximize agreement between self and other

Yes, of course you’re right, but your decision might make her very unhappy

 

From the example, B actually does not agree that all part of English language difficult to learn. He does not express his disagreement strongly to be more polite. The polite answer will influence the effect of the hearer. In this case, B’s answer minimize his disagreement using partial agreement, “true, but…”.

 

f.       Sympathy maxim

The sympathy maxim explains to minimize antipathy between self and other and maximize sympathy between self and other. In this case, the achievement being reached by other must be congratulated. On other hand, the calamity happens to other, must be given sympathy or condolences. This maxim is applicable in assertives/ representatives. The example is as follows. This includes a small group of speech acts such as congratulation, commiseration, and expressing condolences – all of which is in accordance with Brown and Levinson’s positive politeness strategy of attending to the hearer’s interests, wants, and needs.

1.      “I’m terribly sorry to hear about your father.”

2.       I am sorry to hear about your father.

 

minimize antipathy/maximize sympathy between self and other

I was very sorry to hear about your father’s death

It is a condolence expression which is expressed the sympathy for misfortune. This utterance is uttered when the hearer gets calamity of father’s died or sick. This expression shows the solidarity between the speaker and the hearer.

Politeness Principle: Table

A description of the six maxims of the politeness principle as they are formulated by Leech, [1]are indicated below.

Maxim

Where Found

Description

1. The tact maxim

In impositives and commisives

The speaker[2] minimizes the cost (and correspondingly maximizes the benefit) to the listener .

2. The generosity maxim

In impositives and commissives.

The speaker minimizes the benefit (and correspondingly maximizes the cost) to herself.

3. The approbation maxim

In expressives and assertives.

The speaker minimizes dispraise (and correspondingly maximizes praise) of the listener.

4. The modesty maxim.

In expressives and assertives.

The speaker minimizes praise (and correspondingly maximizes dispraise) of herself.

5. The agreement maxim.

In assertives.

The speaker minimizes disagreement (and correspondingly maximizes agreement) between herself and the listener.

6. The sympathy maxim.

In assertives.

The speaker minimizes antipathy (and correspondingly maximizes sympathy) between herself and the listener.

Leech’s theory of politeness also establishes five scales, which are used for determining how the maxims should be used and balanced.

1.      The Cost Benefit Scale: weighs the costs and benefits that an act will have on the speaker and the audience.

2.      Optionality Scale: weighs how much choice the goals of the speaker allow the audience.

3.      Indirectness Scale: weighs how hard the audience must work to understand the speaker.

4.      Authority Scale: weighs the right for the speaker to impose their ideas onto the audience.

5.      Social Distance Scale: weighs the degree of familiarity between the speaker and audience (Fraser, 1990).

According to Leech, different situations call for different degrees of politeness. He outlines four main situations, which call for politeness.

1.      Competitive: the speech goal competes with the social goal. In this situation politeness is viewed as being negative. For example, giving an order.

2.      Convivial: the speech goal matches the social goal. In this situation politeness is viewed as being positive. For example, thanking someone.

3.      Collaborative: the speech goal is indifferent the social goal. For example, making an announcement.

4.      Conflictive: the speech goal conflicts with the social goal. For example, making an accusation (Fraser, 1990).

 

2.      Brown and Levinson’s Politeness Theory

Perhaps the most thorough treatment of the concept of politeness is that of Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson, which was first published in 1978 and then reissued, with a long introduction, in 1987. In their model, politeness is defined as redressive action taken to counter-balance the disruptive effect of face-threatening acts (FTAs).FTAs usually speaker says something that represents a threat to another individual’s.

Brown and Levinson developed a theory of politeness that drew on Goffman’s idea of face and expanded upon Lakoff’s rules of politeness. According to Brown and Levinson there are two kinds of face, which reflect two different desires present in every interaction (Johnstone, 2008).

a.      Negative Face (desire to express one’s ideas without resistance)

Negative face the need to be independent, to have freedom of action, and not to be imposed on by others. Negative face need to be independentand free.negative face refers to the want of every competent adult member that his actions be unimpeded by others For the example:

 

I’m sorry to bother you.

Appeal to positive face.

I know you’re busy.

 

b.      Positive Face (desire to have one’s contributions approved of)

Positive face is the need to be accepted, even liked, by others, to be treated as a member of the same group, and to know that his or her wants are shared by others. Positive face need to be connected and a member of the group. For theb examples:

·         Let’s do it together.

·         You and I have the same problems.

·         Your friend asks for a ride to the airport.

·         Positive face needs:  You think, I better take him because I want him to like me, and I want the reputation of being a reliable person (Goffman: 1967).In conclusion, we can say that negative face is the need to be independent and positive face is the need to be connected.

Brown and Levinson theorize that face must be continually monitored during a conversation because it is vulnerable. During a conversation face can be lost, maintained or enhanced. It is important to not only maintain one’s own face but also the face of others (Fraser, 1990). Interlocutors must be able to “save face” when they are confronted with a “face-threatening act” (FTA), which threatens the faces of the addressees (Johnstone, 2008). Fraser (1990) outlines the four potential face-threatening acts, proposed by Brown and Levinson, as follows.

1.      Acts which threaten the audience’s negative face: ordering, advising, threatening, warning

2.      Acts which threaten the audience’s positive face: complaining, criticizing, disagreeing, raising taboo topics

3.      Acts which threaten speaker’s negative face: accepting an offer, accepting thanks, promising unwillingly

4.      Acts which threaten speaker’s positive face: apologizing, accepting compliments and confessing

Brown and Levinson then propose possible strategies that interlocutors can use to deal with face threatening acts. “Politeness Theory” (2011) outlines them as follows.

1.      Bald On-record politeness: This strategy is used in situations where people know each other well or in a situation of urgency. In these instances maintaining face is not the first priority or main goal of a conversation. A person may shout, “watch out” if they see someone is in danger or a mother may tell her son to “eat your peas” at supper. This strategy does not try to preserve face, but can be used to threaten it if taken out of context. E.g:

Emergency: Help!

Task oriented: Give me those!

Request: Put your jacket away.

Alerting: Turn your lights on! (while driving)

Brown and Levinson outline various cases in which one might use the bald on-record strategy, including:[3]

·         Instances in which threat minimizing does not occur

·         Great urgency or desperation

Watch out!

·         Speaking as if great efficiency is necessary

Hear me out:…

·         Task-oriented

Pass me the hammer.

·         Little or no desire to maintain someone’s face

Don’t forget to clean the blinds!

·         Doing the face-threatening act is in the interest of the hearer

Your headlights are on!

·         Instances in which the threat is minimized implicitly

·         Welcomes

Come in.

·         Offers

Leave it, I’ll clean up later.

Eat!

2.      Off-record: This strategy is more indirect. The speaker does not impose on the hearer. As a result, face is not directly threatened. This strategy often requires the hearer to interpret what the speaker is saying. Off-record indirect strategies take some of the pressure off. You are trying to avoid the direct FTA of asking for a beer. You would rather it be offered to you once your hearer sees that you want one. e.g  (I’t so hot, it makes you really thirsty)

Example of the off-record (indirect)

Give hints: It’s a bit cold in here.

Be vague: Perhaps someone should open the window. Be sarcastic, or joking: Yeah, it’s really hot here.

For example, a speaker using the indirect strategy might merely say “wow, it’s getting cold in here” insinuating that it would be nice if the listener would get up and turn up the thermostat without directly asking the listener to do so

3.      Positive Politeness: This strategy tries to minimize the threat to the audience’s positive face. This can be done by attending to the audience’s needs, invoking equality and feelings of belonging to the group, hedging or indirectness, avoiding disagreement, using humor and optimism and making offers and promises. The positive politeness strategy shows you recognize that your hearer has a face to be respected. It also confirms that the relationship is friendly and expresses group reciprocity. E.g (Is it ok for me to have a beer?)

The examples of Positive Politeness

Attend to the hearer: You must be hungry, it’s a long time since breakfast. How about some lunch?

Avoid disagreement: A: What is she, small? B: Yes, yes, she’s small, smallish, um, not really small but certainly not very big.

Assume agreement: So when are you coming to see us?

Hedge opinion: You really should sort of try harder.

Examples from Brown and Levinson:[4]

  • Attend to H’s interests, needs, wants

You look sad. Can I do anything?

  • Use solidarity in-group identity markers

Heh, mate, can you lend me a dollar?

  • Be optimistic

I’ll just come along, if you don’t mind.

  • Include both speaker (S) and hearer (H) in activity

If we help each other, I guess, we’ll both sink or swim in this course.

  • Offer or promise

If you wash the dishes, I’ll vacuum the floor.

  • Exaggerate interest in H and his interests

That’s a nice haircut you got; where did you get it?

  • Avoid Disagreement

Yes, it’s rather long; not short certainly.

  • Joke

Wow, that’s a whopper!

 

4.      Negative Politeness: This strategy tries to minimize threats to the audience’s negative face. An example of when negative politeness would be used is when the speaker requires something from the audience, but wants to maintain the audience’s right to refuse. This can be done by being indirect, using hedges or questions, minimizing imposition and apologizing. The negative politeness strategy recognizes the hearer’s face. but it also admits that you are in some way imposing on him/her. E.g (I don’t want to bother you but, would it be possible for me to have a beer?). Examples from Brown and Levinson include:[5]

  • Be indirect

Would you know where Oxford Street is?

  • Use hedges or questions

Perhaps, he might have taken it, maybe.

Could you please pass the rice?

  • Be pessimistic

You couldn’t find your way to lending me a thousand dollars, could you?

So I suppose some help is out of the question, then?

  • Minimize the imposition

It’s not too much out of your way, just a couple of blocks.

  • Use obviating structures, like nominalizations, passives, or statements of general rules

I hope offense will not be taken.

Visitors sign the ledger.

Spitting will not be tolerated.

  • Apologize

I’m sorry; it’s a lot to ask, but can you lend me a thousand dollars?

  • Use plural pronouns

We regret to inform you.

An example that is given by McCarthy and Carter [6] is the following dialogue from the Australian television soap opera, “Neighbours“:

Clarrie   : So I said to him, forget your books for one night, throw a party next  weekend.

Helen     : A party at number 30! What will Dorothy say about that?

Clarrie   : Well, what she doesn’t know won’t hurt her. Of course, I’ll be keeping my eye on things, and (SIGNAL OF OPENING) that brings me to my next problem. (EXPLAIN PROBLEM) You see, these young people, they don’t want an old codger like me poking my nose in, so I’ll make myself scarce, but I still need to be closer to hand, you see. So, (ASK FAVOR) I was wondering, would it be all right if I came over here on the night? What d’you reckon?

Helen   : Oh, Clarrie, I…

Clarrie : Oh (MINIMIZATION) I’d be no bother. (REINFORCE EXPLANATION) It’d mean a heck of a lot to those kids.

Helen   : All right.

Clarrie: (THANK WITH BOOST) I knew you’d say yes. You’re an angel, Helen.

Helen   : Ha! (laughs)

 Negative politeness can take the form of:

·         Hedging: Er, could you, er, perhaps, close the, um , window?

·         Pessimism: I don’t suppose you could close the window, could you?

·         Apologizing: I’m terribly sorry to disturb you, but could you close the window?

·         Indicating deference: Excuse me, sir, would you mind if I asked you to close the window?

·         Impersonalizing: The management requires all windows to be closed.

The example of Negative Politeness

Be indirect: I’m looking for a pen.

Request forgiveness: You must forgive me but…. Could I borrow your pen?

Minimize imposition: I just wanted to ask you if I could use your pe.

Pluralize the person responsible: We forgot to tell you that you needed to buy your plane ticket by yesterday.

Although Brown and Levinson acknowledge that what constitutes positive and negative face differs across cultures, they would agree with Lakoff that the concept of face is universal (Johnstone, 2008).

The use of positive politeness forms               solidarity strategy

(used more by groups than individuals)

includes personal information, nicknames, even abusive terms (esp. among males), shared dialect/slang expressions, inclusive terms (‘we’, ‘let’s’ etc.)

Come on, let’s go to the party. Everyone will be there. We’ll have fun.

 

The use of negative politeness forms              deference strategy

formal politeness, more impersonal, can include expressions that refer to neither the

speaker nor the hearer, emphasizing hearer’s and speaker’s independence, no personal claims

There’s going to be a party, if you can make it. It will be fun.

To avoid risk for the another person (i.e. face threatening) can be achieved by providing an

opportunity for the other person to halt the potentially risky act rather than simply making a request, speakers will produce a pre-request

A: Are you busy? (= pre-request)

B: Not really (= go ahead)

A: Check over this memo (= request)

B: Okay (= accept)

 

advantage that hearer can decide to stop the pre-request or go ahead

A: Are you busy? (= pre-request)

B: Oh, sorry. (= stop)

 

This response allows the speaker to avoid making a request that cannot be granted

However, it is also possible to treat pre-requests as as requests and respond to them.

A: Do you have a spare pen?

B: Here (hands over the pen)

A: Do you mind if I use you phone?

B: Yeah, sure.

Not to be interpreted literally as an answer to the pre-request, but to the unstated request.

Other uses of pre-sequences

pre-invitations:

A: What are you doing this Friday? (= pre-invitation)

B: Hmm, nothing so far. (= go ahead)

A: Come over for dinner. (= invitation)

B: Ahm I’d like that. (= accept)

A: Are you doing anything later? (= pre-invitation)

B: Oh yeah. Busy, busy, busy. (= stop)

A: Oh, okay (= stop)

 

 

pre-announcements(often by children):

A: Mom, guess what happened? (= pre-announcement)

B: (Silence)

A: Mom, you know what? (= pre-annoucement)

B: Not right now, sweetie. I’m busy. (= stop)

(No ‘go ahead’, silence should be interpreted as ‘stop‘)

Identify the given pre-sequences

1.       A: Hey, I was just ringing up to ask if you were going to Jim’s party

B: Yes I thought you might

A: Heh heh pre-request

B: Yey, do you need a ride?

A: Yeah thanks

2.       A: Do you have hot chocolate?

B: mmhmm pre-request

A: Can I have hot chocolate with whipped cream?

B: Sure

3.       A: What’cha doin’?

B: Nothin’ pre-invitation

A: Wanna drink?

4.       A: I forgot to tell you the two best things that happened to me today.

B: Oh cool – what were thy? pre-announcement

A: I got a B+ on my math test … and Jenny invited me to her party

 

3.      Robin Lakoff Theory

Lakoff was one of the first linguists to study politeness and gave birth to the notion that politeness is an important aspect of interaction that needs to be studied. Many theorists following Lakoff have focused on either expanding on his maxims or contesting them. Lakoff’s theory of politeness suggests that people follow a certain set of rules when they interact with each other, which prevent interaction from breaking down (Johnstone, 2008). Lakoff proposes that there are two rules of politeness, which aim at minimizing conflict in an interaction. As outlined in “Politeness Theory” (2011), Lakoff’s rules are as follows.

1.      Be clear (based on Grice’s Cooperative Principle Maxims)

1.      Maxim of Quantity

                                                        i.            Sub maxim: state as much information as is needed in the conversation but not more.

2.      Maxim of Quality

                                                        i.            Only say what you believe to be true based on your own knowledge and evidence.

3.      Maxim of Relations (be relevant)

4.      Maxims of Manner

                                                        i.            Be concise, avoid confusing, ambiguous statements

2.      Be polite

1.      Don’t impose

2.      Give options

3.      Make others feel good

These subsets of “Be Polite” have also been referred to as the maxim of formality or distance, the maxim of hesitancy or deference and the maxim of equality or camaraderie (Johnstone, 2008). Lakoff suggests that interlocutors must try to find a balance between these three maxims because they cannot all be maximized at the same time. When the balance of these three maxims is thrown off people perceive behavior or speech to be inappropriate or impolite (2008). Lakoff’s theory of politeness considers politeness to be universal (Terkourafi, n.d.). This is an idea that will be contested and debated by later theorists.


[1] In his Principles of Pragmatics (London: Longman, 1983): see especially chapters 5 and 6

[2] Again, following the practice above, the speaker is treated as female, and the listener as male.

[3] Brown, Penelope and Stephen C. Levinson. 1987. Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-31355-1

[4] Brown, Penelope and Stephen C. Levinson. 1987. Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-31355-1

[5] Brown, Penelope and Stephen C. Levinson. 1987. Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-31355-1

[6] Carter, Ronald and McCarthy, Michael. 1994. Language as Discourse- Perspectives for Language Teaching. Longman Publishing, New York. ISBN 10 0-582-084245

Interpretation of song “who says”


“Who Says”

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BzE1mX4Px0I

I wouldn’t wanna be anybody else
Aku tak ingin jadi orang lain
hey

You made me insecure
Kau membuatku rendah diri
Told me I wasn’t good enough
Kau bilang aku tak cukup baik
But who are you to judge
Tapi apa hakmu menilaiku?
When you’re a diamond in the rough
Saat dirimu bak permata yang belum diasah
I’m sure you got some things
Aku yakin kau punya sesuatu
You’d like to change about yourself
Kau ingin mengubah dirimu
But when it comes to me
Tapi jika aku
I wouldn’t want to be anybody else
Aku tak ingin jadi orang lain

PRE-CHORUS
Na na na
Na na na
I’m no beauty queen
Aku memang bukan ratu kecantikan
I’m just beautiful me
Aku cantik sebagai diriku sendiri
Na na na
Na na na
You’ve got every right
Kau punya hak
To a beautiful life
Tuk rasakan hidup yang indah
C’mon
Ayolah

CHORUS
Who says
Kata siapa
Who says you’re not perfect
Kata siapa kau tak sempurna
Who says you’re not worth it
Kata siapa kau tak layak menerimanya
Who says you’re the only one that’s hurting
Kata siapa hanya kau yang terluka
Trust me
Percayalah padaku
That’s the price of beauty
Itulah harga kecantikan
Who says you’re not pretty
Kata siapa kau tak anggun
Who says you’re not beautiful
Kata siapa kau tak cantik
Who says
Kata siapa

It’s such a funny thing
Sungguh hal yang lucu
How nothing’s funny when it’s you
Betapa tak ada yang lucu jika tentangmu
You tell ‘em what you mean
Kau bilang pada mereka arti dirimu
But they keep whiting out the truth
Tapi mereka terus abaikan kenyataan
It’s like a work of art
Seperti karya seni
That never gets to see the light
Yang tak pernah terkena cahaya
Keep you beneath the stars
Terus di bawah bintang
Won’t let you touch the sky
Tak biarkan kau menyentuh langit

PRE-CHORUS
CHORUS

BRIDGE
Who says you’re not star potential
Kata siapa kau bukan calon bintang
Who says you’re not presidential
Kata siapa kau tak bisa jadi presiden
Who says you can’t be in movies
Kata siapa kau tak bisa masuk film
Listen to me, listen to me
Dengarkan aku, dengarkanlah aku
Who says you don’t pass the test
Kata siapa kau tak lulus ujian
Who says you can’t be the best
Kata siapa kau tak bisa jadi yang terbaik
Who said, who said
Kata siapa, kata siapa
Won’t you tell me who said that
Katakanlah padaku itu kata siapa
Yeah, who said
Yeah, kata siapa
The Interpretation of song “who Says” by Selena Gomez
This song is about to be yourself and don’t listen to what others say. Just be what you wanna be. It’s not about what people says about you then you can easily change yourself like they wanna be but it’s about be yourself. From this song we can get many motivations. So we can proud with our own self. It’s about being yourself and don’t let another people say that you can’t be yourself or do what do you wanna do.
We can now that most of girls in the present tend to try to dress and try to be what they feel other people want to be. Everyone wants to follow the trend and what’s in and what’s cool. At the end of the day when you strip all that down, are you really proud of yourself are you really comfortable in your skin? Then what they get from those. Are we proud with our self when we have down those things? So we can learn many things from this song. When we want to be happy with our life just be your self and be confident with it.
We can learn how to improve our inner beauty by being own self and don’t imitate another people to show your potentiality. The singer believes that we can be the best and can do the best for our life without change anything. We must show our inner beauty, potential, and confident by our own way. We can know from words “Who Says” that always repeated on this song it mean that the singer try to motivated us don’t be afraid, don’t change your self to be another people, and she believe that you can be everything that you wanna be, just be your self.

RPP Reading Analytical exposition


RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN
(RPP)

Temen-temen bloggerq yang setia mohon bantuanya buat like link dibawah ini ya
caranya kunjungi dulu linknya baru like oke2 makasih

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“karena saya ikut photo contest :)”
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Nama sekolah : MAN Salatiga
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Program : IPS
Kelas/Semester : XI (Sebelas) / 1
Tema : Analytical Exposition
Aspek/Skill : membaca
Alokasi Waktu : 2 x 45 menit

260812-1227

A. Standar Kompetensi :
5. Memahami makna fungsional pendek dan esei berbentuk report, narrative, analytical exposition, dalam konteks kehidupa sehari-hari dan untuk mengakses ilmu pengetahuan.
B. Kompetensi Dasar :
5.2. Merespon makna dan langkah retorika dalam esei yang mengunakan ragam bahasa tulis akurat, lancar, dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan untuk mengakses ilmu pengetahuan dalam teks bentuk: report, narrative, dan analytical exposition.
C. Tujuan Pembelajaran
Pada akhir pembelajaran, siswa dapat:
1. Mampu merespon makna gagasan (ideasional) dan informasi faktual dalam teks yang meliputi main ideas, supporting ideas, details.
2. Mampu mengidentifikasi langkah-langkah retorika wacana analytical exposition.
D. Karakter siswa yang diharapkan : Dapat dipercaya ( Trustworthines)
Rasa hormat dan perhatian ( respect )
Tekun ( diligence )
Tanggung jawab ( responsibility )
Berani ( courage )

E. Materi Pembelajaran
1. Analytical exposition
Definition of Analytical Exposition
It is a kind of text type that presents one side of an issue in a form of arguments. The purpose of analytical exposition is to persuade the readers by presenting one side of an argument. In other word, it can be said that an analytical exposition is used to argue point of view or to persuade the audience to do something. Analytical exposition text can be found in legal defenses, spoken arguments, advertisement, announcement, radio commercial and leaflet. Analytical exposition also the text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Its social function is to show the readers that the idea is the important matter.
Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition
1. Thesis : Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position. It consists of the author’s point of view (thesis), preview of the arguments that will follow in the next section, and a question or emotional statement to get audience attention.
2. Arguments : Explaining the arguments to support the writer’s position. This part is significant to support about the thesis. Therefore, it needs some requirements. They are explained as follow;
a) A new paragraph is used for each argument
b) Each new paragraph begins with topic sentence
c) After topic sentence comes the details to support the arguments
d) Emotive words are used to persuade the audience into believing the author.
3. Reiteration : Restating the writer’s position. A conclusion summing up the arguments: In this way, the author restates the author’s point of view (thesis)/ reiteration. Furthermore, summary of what has been stated in the section above may be included here.

The example of Analytical Exposition
Cars should be banned

Thesis
Cars should be banned in the city. As we all know, cars create pollution, and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents.

(Mobil harus dilarang di kota. Seperti yang kita ketahui, mobil membuat polisi dan membuat banyak kematian di jalan dan kecelakaan.)

Argument 1
Firstly, cars, as we all know, give contribution to the most of the pollution in the world. Cars emit deadly gas that causes illness such as bronchritis, lung cancer, and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them.

(Pertama, mobil, sebagai mana kita ketahui, menyumbang polusi terbanyak di dunia. Mobil mengeluarkan gas mematikan yang menyebabkan penyakit seperti bronchitis, kanker paru-paru, dan pemicu asthma. Beberapa penyakit tersebut sangatlah buruk bagi manusia yang bisa menyebabkan kematian.)
Argument 2
Secondly, the city is very busy. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrains in the city, which causes them to die. Cars today are our roads biggest killers.

(Yang kedua, kota sangatlah sibuk. Pejalan kaki berjalan ke mana-mana dan mobil umumnya menabrak pejalan kaki di kota, yang menyebabkan kematian. Mobil hari ini adalah pembunuh terbesar di jalan.)

Argument 3
Thirdly, cars are very noisy. If you live in the city, you may find it hard to sleep at night, or to concentrate on your homework, and especially when you talk to someone.

(Yang ketiga, mobil sangatlah berisik. Jika kamu tinggal di kota, kamu mungkin akan menjumpai sangat lah susah untuk tidur di malam hari atau untuk berkonsentrasi pada pekerjaan rumah kalian, dan khususnya ketika kamu berbicara kepada seseorang.)

Reiteration
In conclusion, cars should be benned from the city for the reason listed.

(Kesimpulannya, mobil harus dilarang dari kota berdasarkan alasan tersebut.)

2. Present tense
How do we use the Present Simple Tense?
We use the present simple tense when:
the action is general
the action happens all the time, or habitually, in the past, present and future
the action is not only happening now
the statement is always true
How do we make the Present Simple Tense?
(+) S+V1 (es/s)+O
(-) S+ do/Does + O For Ajective we add present to be (Am, Are, Is) and remove do/ does then follow by adjective
(?) Do/does+ S+O
There are three important exceptions:
For positive sentences, we do not normally use the auxiliary.
For the 3rd person singular (he, she, it), we add s to the main verb or es to the auxiliary.
For the verb to be, we do not use an auxiliary, even for questions and negatives.
F. Strategi Pembelajaran:
1. Metode Pembelajaran : Penjelasan, diskusi, dan tanya jawab.
2. Pendekatan Pembelajaran : Edukatif

G. Langkah-langkah Kegiatan
1. Kegiatan Pendahuluan (10 menit)
Apersepsi :
• Berdoa untuk mengawali pembelajaran.
• Tanya jawab tentang authentic material yang menjadi latar belakang pembahasan materi.
• Jugle paragraph: game ini yang akan mengarahkan siswa pada materi yang akan dijelaskan.
Motivasi :
• Menjelaskan pentingnya materi yang akan dipelari berikut kompetensi yang harus dikuasi siswa

2. Kegiatan Inti (70 menit)
a. Eksplorasi
Dalam kegiatan eksplorasi, guru:
• Melibatkan peserta didik mencari informasi yang luas dan dalam tentang topik/tema materi yang akan dipelajari.
• Mencocokkan tebakan siswa dengan materi yang ada dalam text book.
• Peserta didik mempelajari penjelasan dan contoh teks analytical exposition, present tense melalui audio visual, dan text tulis yang ada dalam text book. Guru menjelaskan hal-hal yang belum dipahami siswa.
• Menunjukan gambar untuk mengembangkan kreatifitas siswa dalam membuat kalimat yang sesuai dengan materi yang dibahas.
• Menyusun paragraf analytical exposition yang rumpang sesuai denga text organizationya.
• Menggunakan beragam pendekatan pembelajaran, media pembelajaran, dan sumber belajar lain;
• Memfasilitasi terjadinya interaksi antarpeserta didik serta antara peserta didik dengan guru, lingkungan, dan sumber belajar lainnya;
• Melibatkan peserta didik secara aktif dalam setiap kegiatan pembelajaran.
• Memfasilitasi peserta didik melakukan percobaan di laboratorium, studio, atau lapangan.
b. Elaborasi
Dalam kegiatan elaborasi, guru:
• Membiasakan peserta didik membaca dan menulis yang beragam melalui tugas-tugas tertentu yang bermakna;
• Memfasilitasi peserta didik melalui pemberian tugas, diskusi, dan lain-lain untuk memunculkan gagasan baru baik secara lisan maupun tertulis;
• Memberi kesempatan untuk berpikir, menganalisis, menyelesaikan masalah, dan bertindak tanpa rasa takut;
• Memfasilitasi peserta didik dalam pembelajaran kooperatif dan kolaboratif;
• Memfasilitasi peserta didik berkompetisi secara sehat untuk meningkatkan prestasi belajar;
• Memfasilitasi peserta didik membuat laporan eksplorasi yang dilakukan baik lisan maupun tertulis, secara individual maupun kelompok;
• Memfasilitasi peserta didik untuk menyajikan hasil kerja individual maupun kelompok;
• Memfasilitasi peserta didik melakukan pameran, turnamen, festival, serta produk yang dihasilkan;
• Memfasilitasi peserta didik melakukan kegiatan yang menumbuhkan kebanggaan dan rasa percaya diri peserta didik.
c. Konfirmasi
Dalam kegiatan konfirmasi, guru:
• Memberikan umpan balik positif dan penguatan dalam bentuk lisan, tulisan, isyarat, maupun hadiah terhadap keberhasilan peserta didik,
• Memberikan konfirmasi terhadap hasil eksplorasi dan elaborasi peserta didik melalui berbagai sumber,
• Memfasilitasi peserta didik melakukan refleksi untuk memperoleh pengalaman belajar yang telah dilakukan,
• Memfasilitasi peserta didik untuk memperoleh pengalaman yang bermakna dalam mencapai kompetensi dasar:
• Berfungsi sebagai narasumber dan fasilitator dalam menjawab pertanyaan peserta didik yang menghadapi kesulitan, dengan menggunakan bahasa yang baku dan benar;
• Membantu menyelesaikan masalah;
• Memberi acuan agar peserta didik dapat melakukan pengecekan hasil eksplorasi;
• Memberi informasi untuk bereksplorasi lebih jauh;
• Memberikan motivasi kepada peserta didik yang kurang atau belum berpartisipasi aktif.
• Guru bertanya jawab tentang hal-hal yang belum diktahui siswa
• Guru bersama siswa bertanya jawab meluruskan kesalahan pemahaman, memberikan penguatan dan penyimpulan

3. Kegiatan Penutup (10 menit)
Dalam kegiatan penutup, guru:
• bersama-sama dengan peserta didik dan/atau sendiri membuat rangkuman/simpulan pelajaran;
• melakukan penilaian dan/atau refleksi terhadap kegiatan yang sudah dilaksanakan secara konsisten dan terprogram;
• memberikan umpan balik terhadap proses dan hasil pembelajaran;
• merencanakan kegiatan tindak lanjut dalam bentuk pembelajaran remedi, program pengayaan, layanan konseling dan/atau memberikan tugas baik tugas individual maupun kelompok sesuai dengan hasil belajar peserta didik;
• menyampaikan rencana pembelajaran pada pertemuan berikutnya.
H. Alat dan Sumber belajar
a. Alat dan Media
Alat : Laptop, LCD, white board
Media : Power point, LKS Intan Pariwara SMA/MA XI, picture, authentic material
b. Sumber Belajar
Buku paket : Progress grade XI
Buku referensi : Look ahead 2
I. Penilaian
a. Teknik Penilaian
• Tugas kelompok : penilaian proses, karakter, dan keakuratan mengidentifikasi laguage feature of analytical exposition dalam test yang dibaca.
• Tugas Individu : penilaian kognitif
• Bentuk Instrumen
1. Pedoman observasi
2. Uraian objektive
3. Pilihan ganda
4. Isian
5. Jawaban singkat

b. Instrumen Evaluasi :
Indikator Pencapaian Kompetensi Teknik Penilaian Bentuk Instrumen Instrumen/ Soal
1. Mampu merespon makna gagasan (ideasional) dan informasi faktual dalam teks yang meliputi main ideas, supporting ideas, details.
2. Mampu mengidentifikasi langkah-langkah retorika wacana analytical exposition.
membaca

Tulis Uraian objectif

Isian • Read following the text.
• Read the following dialog.

• Provide the title the conclusion for the text.
• Make a paragraph depend on the picture using present tense to expresses the ideas.
• anaswer the questions based on the text.
• Arrage the paragraph depend on the text organization of the analytical exposition.

J. Pedoman Penilaian
• Rubic Pilihan Ganda
4 point for multiple-choice 25= 100
No Uraian Skor
1. Jawaban benar 4
2. Jawaban salah 0

Skor maksimal= 100
Nilai siswa= Skor perolehan x 10=
Skor maksimal (100)
• Rubrik Penilaian Tulis

4 point x skor 1-5= 100
Skor maksimal= 100
Nilai siswa= Skor perolehan x 10=
Skor maksimal (100)

Mengetahui;
Guru Pamong

( Nur Jadid,S.PdI )
NIP. 198008062006041022 Salatiga, 26 Agustus 2013
Guru Mapel Bahasa Inggris,

( Febri Ari Sandi )
NIM : 11310010

First challenge
Laela : Good morning, Ahmad.
Ahmad: Oh….hi,MorningLaela. How are you today?
Laela : I feel better today, thanks, Uhm…Is that today’s newspaper? Yeah, the one you are reading
Ahmad: Yup!
Laela : did you read that article in the paper about smoking? The person who wrote it must be crazy.
Ahmad: I don’t think so. I thing the government should do everything it can to discourage people from smoking.
Laela : Maybe so. But a law banning cigarettes does not good.
Ahmad: What do you mean? In my opinion, though you can’t suddenly make smoking illegal but it is important for the government to establish the law that prohibits smoking in public places like cinemas and hospital.
Laela : Yes, that’s true. But I think people should be allowed to smoke on the train and buses. Don’t you think so?
Ahmad : Not at all. It’s awful sitting next to someone blowing smoke smoke all over you, if you don’t smoke yourself.
Laela : Sure, I agree. But if you do smoke, and don’t forget, it isn’t a crime….
Ahmad: Well, that’s where the governmentcan help. It should make “NO SMOKING” compartments on all trains, buses, and aeroplanes, and there should be more “NO SMOKING” compartments that “Smoking”. Then, you’ll really discourage people from smoking.
Laela : Yes I suppose you’re right, on that basis, we agree that there should be some real effort to discourage people from smoking. Well, I’ve got to go now and hand in these paper to our teacher. It’s nice to have talked with you. Thanks, Ahmad.
Ahmad: Bye. Laela

The role for second challenge
Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses
Cara Pengerjaan: Dalam satu kelompok terdiri dari 4 orang
• Si 1,2,3 mengerjakan soal
• Si 4 menjadi pembaca estafet
• Si 5 menjadi penulis
• Si 6,7,8 menjadi Pengoreksi.

Uraian Skor
Isi benar, tata bahasa benar
Isi benar, tata bahasa kurang tepat
Isi dan tata bahasa kurang tepat
Tidak menjawab 3
2
1
0

SECOND CHALLENGE ACTIVE READING. Read the following teks. Then, answer the questions.

A. Read to text then complete the blanks use the suitable words that provided in the box.
The Importance of English Language

Personally think that English is the world’s most ________language. Why do I say that?
Firstly, English is international language. It is spoken by many people all over the________, either as a first or second language.
Secondly, English is also the key which opens doors to scientific and technical knowledge, which is needed for economic and political development of many ________in the world.
Thirdly, English is the top requirement of those seeking jobs. __________who master either passive or active English are more favorable than those who don’t.
From the fact above, it is obivious that everybody _____to learn English to greet the global era.

B. Answer these questions base on the text using complete answers.
1. Why is it so important to learn English?
2. What is the purpose of the writer in the text?
3. Do you think everybody will agree with the text? Why/why not?
4. What do you call this text?
5. What tense is mostly used in the text?

Evaluation ( Choose A, B, C, D, E for the correct answer)

Smoking in Restaurant
Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers.
Firstly, smoking in a restaurant is impolite. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke.
Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer.
Finally, smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere, not just in restaurants.
Therefore, smoking in restaurants is impolite, harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants.

1. Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because……
a) It is harmful to others
b) It is impolite
c) It’s dangerous to the smokers
d) It can cause heart and lung disease
e) All answers are correct

2. We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. The word reasons mean…..
a) conclusion
b) point of view
c) argument
d) reinforcement
e) statement

3. Since we can find a thesis, arguments and reiteration in the text, so we can conclude that this text belongs to…..
a) description
b) narration
c) anecdote
d) procedure
e) analytical exposition

4. What is the purpose of the text?
a) To inform the readers to the readers
b) To persuade to the readers
c) To describe to the readers
d) To tell a story to the readers
e) To argue about smoking to the readers

5. The synonym of the word dangerous in the text is……
a) rude
b) impolite
c) health risk
d) harmful
e) disease

6. Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers.
The sentence above characterize as….. of the text.
a) thesis
b) arguments
c) reiteration
d) topic sentence
e) supporting details

Learning English
Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning.
Firstly, “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant, shopping malls, etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory.
Secondly, songs in general also use simple conversational language, with a lot of repetition, which is just what many learners look for sample text. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. Although usually simple, some songs can be quite complex syntactically, lexically and poetically, and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample.
Furthermore, song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people, place or time reference.
In addition, songs are relaxing. They provide variety and fun, and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture, religion, patriotism and yeas, even revolution.
Last but not least, there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar, practicing selective listening comprehension, translating songs, learning vocabulary, spelling and culture.
From the elaboration above, it can be concluded that learning through music and songs, learning English can be enjoyable and fun.

7. The type of the text above is …
a) Analytical exposition
b) Hortatory exposition
c) Narrative
d) Discussion
e) Explanation

8. What is the communicative purpose of the text?
a) To tell the reader about the songs
b) To entertain the reader with the songs
c) To show the reader the use of songs
d) To explain above the songs
e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language

9. The generic structures of the text are ….
a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation
b) General statement – sequential explanation
c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources
d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration
e) General statement – arguments

10. What is the text about ….
a) Learning songs
b) Very enjoyable music
c) The phenomenon
d) Music listeners
e) Using songs in language learning

Evaluation ( Choose A, B, C, D, E for the correct answer)

Smoking in Restaurant
Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers.
Firstly, smoking in a restaurant is impolite. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke.
Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer.
Finally, smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere, not just in restaurants.
Therefore, smoking in restaurants is impolite, harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants.

1. Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because……
a) It is harmful to others
b) It is impolite
c) It’s dangerous to the smokers
d) It can cause heart and lung disease
e) All answers are correct

2. We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. The word reasons mean…..
a) conclusion
b) point of view
c) argument
d) reinforcement
e) statement

3. Since we can find a thesis, arguments and reiteration in the text, so we can conclude that this text belongs to…..
a) description
b) narration
c) anecdote
d) procedure
e) analytical exposition

4. What is the purpose of the text?
a) To inform the readers to the readers
b) To persuade to the readers
c) To describe to the readers
d) To tell a story to the readers
e) To argue about smoking to the readers

5. The synonym of the word dangerous in the text is……
a) rude
b) impolite
c) health risk
d) harmful
e) disease

6. Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers.
The sentence above characterize as….. of the text.
a) thesis
b) arguments
c) reiteration
d) topic sentence
e) supporting details

Learning English
Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning.
Firstly, “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant, shopping malls, etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory.
Secondly, songs in general also use simple conversational language, with a lot of repetition, which is just what many learners look for sample text. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. Although usually simple, some songs can be quite complex syntactically, lexically and poetically, and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample.
Furthermore, song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people, place or time reference.
In addition, songs are relaxing. They provide variety and fun, and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture, religion, patriotism and yeas, even revolution.
Last but not least, there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar, practicing selective listening comprehension, translating songs, learning vocabulary, spelling and culture.
From the elaboration above, it can be concluded that learning through music and songs, learning English can be enjoyable and fun.

7. The type of the text above is …
a) Analytical exposition
b) Hortatory exposition
c) Narrative
d) Discussion
e) Explanation

8. What is the communicative purpose of the text?
a) To tell the reader about the songs
b) To entertain the reader with the songs
c) To show the reader the use of songs
d) To explain above the songs
e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language

9. The generic structures of the text are ….
a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation
b) General statement – sequential explanation
c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources
d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration
e) General statement – arguments

10. What is the text about ….
a) Learning songs
b) Very enjoyable music
c) The phenomenon
d) Music listeners
e) Using songs in language learning

RPP Speaking Expression greeting,introducing, leave-taking


aku.jpgRENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN
(RPP)

Nama sekolah : MAN Salatiga
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Kelas/Semester : X (Sepuluh) / 1
Tema : Recounts
Aspek/Skill : membaca
Alokasi Waktu : 2 x 45 menit

A. Standar Kompetensi :
3. Mengungkapkan makna dalam percakapan transaksional dan interpersonal dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari.
B. Kompetensi Dasar
3.1. Mengungkapkan makna dalam percakapan transaksional (to get thing done) dan interpersonal (bersosialisasi) resmi dan tidak resmi secara akurat, lancar, dan berterimaan dengan ragam bahasa lisan sederhanadalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan melibatkan tindak tutur: berkenalan, bertemu/berpisah, menyetujui ajakan/ tawaran/undangan, menerima janji, dan membatalkan janji.
C. Indikator Pencapaian Kompetensi
• Merespon dengan benar tindak tutur: berkenalan, bertemu/berpisah.
• Melakukan berbagai tindakan tutur dalam wacana lisan interpersonal/ transaksional: berkenalan, bertemu/berpisah.
D. Tujuan Pembelajaran
Pada akhir pembelajaran, siswa dapat:
1. Peserta didik dapat merespon dengan benar tindakan tutur: berkenalan, bertemu/ berpisah.
2. Peserta didik dapat melakukan berbagai tindakan tutur wacana lisan interpersonal/ transaksional: berkenalan, bertemu/berpisah.
E. Karakter siswa yang diharapkan : Dapat dipercaya ( Trustworthines)
Rasa hormat dan perhatian ( respect )
Tekun ( diligence )
Tanggung jawab ( responsibility )
Berani ( courage )

F. Materi Pembelajaran
Introducing yourself The responses
There is a range of ways to introduce yourself to people.
Introducing yourself: Here are expressions to introduce yourself:
• My name is …
• I’m ….
• Nice to meet you; I come from…..
• Pleased to meet you; I’m ….
• Let me introduce myself; I’m …
• I’d like to introduce myself; I’m … Useful responses
• Hi. I’m Nita
• Hello, Ahmad. I’m Faiz. Glad to see you
• Hi. Nita. I’m faiz. I’m from Salatiga.
Introducing others The responses
Introducing others: Here are expressions to introduce others:
• Jack, please meet Nicolas.
• Jack, have you met Nicolas?
• I’d like you to meet Liza.
• I’d like to introduce you to Betty.
• Leila, this is Barbara. Barbara this is Leila. Useful responses other people:
• Nice to meet you.
• Pleased to meet you.
• Happy to meet you.
• How do you do?

Leave-taking Responding
• Goodbye.
• Sorry, I must go now.
• Take care.
• Goodnight,Laela.
• Have a nice day. • Bye bye.
• O.K see you.
• Thanks.
• Sure. Thank you.
• Goodnight, Laela.

Greetings The Responses
greetings
• Hello!
• Hello! Goodmorning etc
• How are you?
• How are you doing?
• How is everything?
• How’s everything going?
• How have you been keeping?
• I trust that everything is well.
• Hi.
• What’s up?
• Good to see you.
• How are things (with you)?
• How’s it going?
• How’s life been treating you? Responses
• Very well, thank you and how are you
• I’m good/okay/alright
• Very well. Thank you.
• Goodmorning
• I’m fine
• I’m fine too
• Fine, thanks
• Not to bad, thanks
• Oh pretty good
• Exellent

• Past tense
Positif: Subjek + V2
Negatif: Subjek + Did not + V1
Pertanyaan: Did + Subjek + V1 +?
G. Metode Pembelajaran
1. Metode pembelajaran: Total Physical Response (TPR), Chain speaking, Running Speaking.
2. Pendekatan pembelajaran: Edukatif
H. Langkah-langkah Kegiatan
1. Kegiatan Pendahuluan (10 menit)
Apersepsi :
• Berdoa untuk mengawali pembelajaran.(Nilai yang ditanamkan: santun dan peduli)
• Mengecek kehadiran siswa. (Nilai yang ditanamkan disiplin dan rajin)
• Warming-up activity: I will ask a one volunter to chat with me infront of class and another student try to guess what is expression that we do.

Motivasi :
• Menjelaskan pentingnya materi yang akan dipelari berikut kompetensi yang harus dikuasi siswa
2. Kegiatan Inti (70 menit)
Eksplorasi
Dalam kegiatan eksplorasi, guru:
• Memberikan stimulus berupa pemberian materi pertanyaan teks tindak tutur: berkenalan, bertemu, berpisah.
• Mediskusikan materi bersama siswa dalam text books
• Menggunakan beragam pendekatan pembelajaran, media pembelajaran, dan sumber belajar lain;
• Memberikan kesempatan kepada peserta didik mengkomunikasikan secara lisan atau mempresentasikanmengenai pertanyaan teks tindak tutur: berkenalan, bertemu, berpisah
• Memfasilitasi terjadinya interaksi antarpeserta didik serta antara peserta didik dengan guru, lingkungan, dan sumber belajar lainnya;
• Melibatkan peserta didik secara aktif dalam setiap kegiatan pembelajaran; dan
Elaborasi
Dalam kegiatan elaborasi, guru:
• Membiasankan siswa membuat kalimat tindak tutur: berkenalan, bertemu, berpisah.
• Memfasilitasi siwa untuk mengembangkan speaking skill berupa berbicara dan tanya-jawab dalam recount dan ekspresi berkenalan, bertemu, berpisah baik dengan cara memberi soal atau membahasa soal yang ada dalam buku.
Konfirmasi
Dalam kegiatan konfirmasi, guru:
• Memberikan umpan balik positif dan penguatan dalam bentuk lisan, tulisan, isyarat, maupun hadiah terhadap keberhasilan peserta didik,
• Memberikan komfirmasi pada hasil pekerjaan yang sudah dikerjakan oleh siswa melalui sumber buku lain.
• Guru bertanya jawab tentang hal-hal yang belum diktahui siswa
• Guru bersama siswa bertanya jawab meluruskan kesalahan pemahaman, memberikan penguatan dan penyimpulan.
• Guru memberikan motivasi kepada siswa yang masih kurang dan belum bisa mengikuti materi.
3. C. Kegiatan Penutup
Dalam kegiatan penutup, guru:
• bersama-sama dengan peserta didik dan/ atau sendiri membuat rangkuman/ simpulan pelajaran;
• melakukan penilaian dan/atau refleksi terhadap kegiatan yang sudah dilaksanakan secara konsisten dan terprogram;
• memberikan umpan balik terhadap proses dan hasil pembelajaran;
• merencanakan kegiatan tindak lanjut dalam bentuk pembelajaran remedi, program pengayaan, layanan konseling dan/atau memberikan tugas baik tugas individual maupun kelompok sesuai dengan hasil belajar peserta didik;
• menyampaikan rencana pembelajaran pada pertemuan berikutnya.
I. Alat dan Sumber belajar
a. Alat dan Media
Alat : Laptop, LCD, white board
Media : Power point, LKS Intan Pariwara SMA/MA X,
b. Sumber Belajar
Buku paket : Progress grade X
Buku referensi : Look Ahead 1
J. Penilaian
I. Indikator, Teknik, Bentuk, dan Contoh.
NO. Indikator Teknik Bentuk Contoh
1.

2. • Merespon dengan benar terhadap tindak tutur: berkenalan, bertemu, berpisah
• Peserta didik dapat melakukan berbagai tindakan tutur wacana lisan interpersonal/ transaksional: berkenalan, bertemu/berpisah.
Performance Assesssment (responding)
Test lisan Melengkapi dialog

Membuat dialog
Read and give your resdon to following expression
Fill the blank the dialog with correct answer then practice memorizing that dialog

II. Instrumen Penilaian
Ranti : Good afternoon, Sir.
Mr Bakri : Good afternoon. You are ….
Ranti : My name is Ranti. How are you?
Mr Bakri : I am fine, thank you. And how about you?
Ranti : I am fine, too.
MR Bakri : where do you come from
Ranti : I from Pengilon
Mr Bakri : Well, Ranti. I have to go now. Pleased to meet you.
Ranti : Pleased to meet you too, Sir.

III. Pedoman Penilaian

Oral Presentation Rubric
Presenter’s Name: ________________________ Judge’s Name: _____________
Speech/Presentation Topic:

CATEGORY
4 3 2 1

Poise

Displays confident posture without fidgeting or dancing.

Displays confident posture with little fidgeting or dancing.

Sometimes displays confident posture but also seems fidgety.

Lack of posture and an excess of fidgeting distracted from the actual speech.

Voice

Voice was used to convey emotions appropriately.

Voice was used but the emotion it conveyed sometimes did not fit the content.

Voice was rarely used OR the emotion it conveyed did not fit the content.

Voice was not used to convey emotion

Life

Facial expressions and body language generate a strong interest and enthusiasm about the topic in others.

Facial expressions and body language sometimes generate a strong interest and enthusiasm about the topic in others.

Facial expressions and body language are used to try to generate enthusiasm, but seem somewhat faked.

Very little use of facial expressions or body language. Did not generate much interest in topic being presented.

Eye Contact

Establishes eye contact with everyone in the room during the presentation.

Establishes eye contact with most everyone in the room during the presentation.

Sometimes establishes eye contact.

Does not look at people during the presentation, or looks only at the teacher.

Gestures
Uses appropriate gestures to enhance the speech.

Sometimes uses gestures to enhance the speech.

Gestures were used but seemed inappropriate or awkward.

Gestures were not used.

Speed

Speech seems to go at the perfect pace.

Speech was a little fast or a little slow.

Speech was too fast or too slow.

Speech was hard to follow because it was way too fast or too slow.

Total Score: _________ of 24
Additional Comments:

• Cara scoring
1. Skor untuk fill the blank 1 point untuk 6 soal= 1×6= 6
2. Skor 1-4 point untuk 6 kategori practice memorizing dialog= 4×6= 24

Sekor maksimal: 30
Nilai siswa = Skor Maksimal = 10
3

Mengetahui;
Guru Pamong

( Nurul Jazimah, M.PdI )
NIP. 197802192005012002 Salatiga, 19 Agustus 2013
Praktikan,

( Febri Ari Sandi )
NIM: 11310010

Evaluation
A. Ccomplete the dialog witch still blanks use the suitable expression that provided in the box.

Ranti :1._______________Sir.
Mr Bakri :Good afternoon. You are ….
Ranti :2____________. How are you?
Mr Bakri : I am fine, thank you.3______________?
Ranti : I am fine, too.
MR Bakri : 4.___________?
Ranti : I from Pengilon
Mr Bakri : Well, Ranti. 5_____________. Pleased to meet you.
Ranti :6________________, Sir.

B. After you fill the dialog try to memorize that dialog with your partner and practice it to get the score.

• Answer key
1. Good afternoon.
2. My name Ranti.
3. And how about you.
4. Where do you come from?
5. I have to go now.
6. Pleased to meet you too.

Exercise
Dalam satu kelas siswa dibagi menjdi 2 kelompok. Kelompok 1mendapatkan prompt cards A dan kelompok 2 mendapat prompt cards B. Kemudian siswa akan berdiri membentuk lingkaran atau kotak yang dimana kelompok 1 didalam lingkaran atau kotak dan kelompok 2 berada di luar kotak atau lingkaran. Kemudian mereka berhadapat dan melakukan tanya jawab setelah selesai meraka akan bertanya kepada siswa yang lainnya.
Give Student A get a copy of card 1A, and give Student B a copy of card 1B. Explain and ask them to have a short conversation. B asks the questions, and A answers them.
prompt cards
1A. Who answer: the situation is morning.Then you meet your friends at school, and you talk about your experiences when you went to night market (your experiences: crowded, noise,pleasured, bought many thing) . Then the bell ring so you must go to class so you end the conversation with your friend.
1B Questioner: you must give this question to your friend and listen what he/she answers

-Goodmorning?
-how are you today?
– yesterday you did you go to night market?
– could you tell me your experiences when you went to night market?
– Oh..the bell ring so our time is up…but I’m happy can heard your experiences at night market yesterday. Okay, I have to go now. Pleased to meet you

1A. Who answer: the situation is morning.Then you meet your friends at school, and you talk about your experiences when you went to night market (your experiences: crowded, noise,pleasured, bought many thing) . Then the bell ring so you must go to class so you end the conversation with your friend.

Pleased to meet you too 1B Questioner: you must give this question to your friend and listen what he/she answers

-Goodmorning?
-how are you today?
– yesterday you did you go to night market?
– could you tell me your experiences when you went to night market?
– Oh..the bell ring so our time is up…but I’m happy can heard your experiences at night market yesterday. Okay, I have to go now. Pleased to meet you

1A. Who answer: the situation is morning.Then you meet your friends at school, and you talk about your experiences when you went to night market (your experiences: crowded, noise,pleasured, bought many thing) . Then the bell ring so you must go to class so you end the conversation with your friend.

Pleased to meet you too 1B Questioner: you must give this question to your friend and listen what he/she answers

-Goodmorning?
-how are you today?
– yesterday you did you go to night market?
– could you tell me your experiences when you went to night market?
– Oh..the bell ring so our time is up…but I’m happy can heard your experiences at night market yesterday. Okay, I have to go now. Pleased to meet you

1A. Who answer: the situation is morning.Then you meet your friends at school, and you talk about your experiences when you went to night market (your experiences: crowded, noise,pleasured, bought many thing) . Then the bell ring so you must go to class so you end the conversation with your friend.

Pleased to meet you too 1B Questioner: you must give this question to your friend and listen what he/she answers

-Goodmorning?
-how are you today?
– yesterday you did you go to night market?
– could you tell me your experiences when you went to night market?
– Oh..the bell ring so our time is up…but I’m happy can heard your experiences at night market yesterday. Okay, I have to go now. Pleased to meet you

Evaluation
A. Ccomplete the dialog witch still blanks use the suitable expression that provided in the box.

Ranti :1._______________Sir.
Mr Bakri :Good afternoon. You are ….
Ranti :2____________. How are you?
Mr Bakri : I am fine, thank you.3______________?
Ranti : I am fine, too.
MR Bakri : 4.___________?
Ranti : I from Pengilon
Mr Bakri : Well, Ranti. 5_____________. Pleased to meet you.
Ranti :6________________, Sir.

B. After you fill the dialog try to memorize that dialog with your partner and practice it to get the score.